Wednesday, August 30, 2017

Understanding Importance of India and its Philosophy for Universal Brotherhood


By Arvind Bhagwath


Introduction:

To introduce myself, I am Arvind Bhagwath and I belong to Goud Saraswat Brahmin community. We are Saraswat Brahmins named after the mythical river Sarasvati that existed during one of oldest human civilization on earth.As history speaks, our community had to migrate several times to different parts of India in times due to either climatic changes( river Sarasvati getting dried up) or due to invasions. Our community has history of migrations and also has Guru-parampara that maintains unbroken linage of Guru and disciples from days of Veda Vyasa ( composer of Vedas and Puranas) till date and with Gotra systems that is followed in Hindu belief system, I belong to Kaunsha Gotra of Rigvedic Sage Vishvamitra and as per information from my elders, the math(institution) that I need to follow would be Shri_Gaudapadacharya_Math who's disciple were Great Shri Adi Sankara who laid strong foundation of Dharma that supports Universal brotherhood those days around 7th century AD.
Curiosity on finding our GSB community's lost Saraswati River, understanding Indian Philosophy and also my keen interest on R1a DNA (Y Chromosome) evolution has led me to get few of these data facts. In simple English and for everyone to understand, I have created blog on how chromosomes came into existence and basically how life got created on this earth  - http://arvindbhagwath.blogspot.in/2009/. Based on this blog, I had few interesting debates. However while I was interacting with various people and discussing about science and human civilization, many times I was deeply saddened when people from different faith, caste or belief system fight against each other for all silly reasons in name of languages, caste, culture etc. considering one as superior than other. This made me to think and help these people by providing some of actual truth findings that was achieved by modern science to support and promote universal brotherhood. This was the actual main reason to write this blog.
To support my findings and understanding the actual truth behind civilization, mythology, culture and languages spoken across globe, I have personally read all Vedas, Puranas, belief systems across the world and also have travelled across each part of our country (India) and followed by travelling to several countries across the globe that includes Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Thailand, Middle east, Americas etc. and have done extensive research based on findings from International DNA projects, archaeology departments across the world and inputs from several communities, scientific facts that were available in Internet with valid data and proof. If something that has convinced me, I am sure this will convince many others who might have similar questions that I had and I will guarantee that nothing in my blog will be based on theories, but only 100% fact findings. Below are few very curious questions that I am trying to answer with facts.

1. What are Vedas and what does it preach? What are different schools of thoughts of Indian Philosophy?
2. What is Hinduism? Which script was used to write Vedas? Who was the founder?
3. What is the main reason for having so many deities in Hindu belief system even if basic philosophy believes in single source of truth? From where did all these idol worship start and so many deities got included in belief system?
4. Why do Hindus break coconut in all ceremonies or pujas while praying deities? Which sage brought the reform from animal sacrifice to practice of breaking coconut that is non-violent way? Same way, how did death rituals that Hindus follow as of today got reformed?
5. What makes Sanatana Dharma(referred as Hinduism currently) so tolerant towards all faith and even till today accepts every belief system across the world in its own? Who brought all these regular reforms in Dharma?
6. Finally, which is the source for written scripts that we use as of now?


To start, we need to first understand about Indian Philosophy and major schools of thoughts that took birth in Sanatana Dharma (currently referred as Hindu philosophy)

As a known fact, India has never invaded any country in its past 10,000 years of history and the people associated with ancient civilizations across the world who came here along with their cultural past due to persecution or ill-treatment in there native were adapted and protected here in this great land just because of "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam", the entire world is a family is what our philosophy teaches if you are a Hindu. "Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah", may all living beings live happily, in peace, may good happen to all, may all prosper and live their lives to their fullest potential is what we still follow. We have digested several cultures that came to India from all over world and our sages modified and created regular reforms in our culture to keep everyone happy and the list of current Hindu deities that we pray in India can be more than population of few villages :-). Our temple gopuras are almost like skyscraper to support every belief system that were followed by diverse culture which got integrated here in this great land(India). Kings were guided by sages for regular reforms to keep people united. Marriages were made within deities they prayed and mythological stories or tales got altered so that people understand that all deities belong to same family :-) and stay united. This is definitely not the case in west and we have clear history in which we see people getting persecuted in name of one GOD and belief. When Jews were persecuted in name of race all over world, it was India that gave them land and protected their rich culture. Israel still loves India and its people for this support that we provided to Jews community in past. People here in India still have freedom to pray any deities and follow any practice.
Our great Sages were so tolerant that they supported reforms regularly with idea of inclusiveness of several cultures that came to India in times and at same time developed study of Vedic knowledge that are supported by science and truth. Our culture is not superstitious as claimed in west, the superstitious rituals of animal scarifies that came here were reformed in most non-violent way and also at same time allowed the people to continue their respective practices or belief which they belonged earlier.

Below are six major schools of thoughts in Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta. ( Each one is better than other in path of self Realization and all these emerged by debating merits and demerits of each school of thoughts in most non-violent way by Vedic Scholars) 
1. Samkhya. This is an oldest and strongly dualism theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter. Samkhya School espouses dualism between consciousness and matter. It regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Purusha (Consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Samkhya philosophy includes a theory of gunas (qualities, innate tendencies, psyche). Guna, it states, are of three types: Sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; Rajas guna is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and Tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya scholars, have these three gunas, but in different proportions. The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life.

2. Yoga, this comprises the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Many types of Yoga, such as raja yoga, jnana yoga, karma yoga, bhakti yoga, tantra yoga, mantra yoga, laya yoga, and hatha yoga and closely related to Samkhya school of thoughts emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation. The Yoga school builds on the Samkhya school theory that jnana (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha (Liberation to Universal Spirit)


3. Nyaya or logic, which explores sources of knowledge using Nyaya Sutras. It holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge (notions and ignorance and Moksha (liberation), it states, is gained through right knowledge. The six means of knowledge are:
•Pratyaksha: Knowledge thru Perception
•Anumana : Knowledge thru Inference
•Upamana : Knowledge by Comparison
•Sabda : Knowledge directly through Words
•Arthapatti : Knowledge thru postulation
•Anupalabhi : Knowledge based on absence
4. Vaiseika, an empiricist school of atomism. It postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to atoms and that one's experiences are derived from the interplay of substance (a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements), quality, activity, commonness, particularity and inherence. Knowledge and liberation are achievable by complete understanding of the world of experience. This philosophy is credited to Kasyapa during Vedic times.

I have done more research on this school of thought and can be found in my earlier blog : https://arvindbhagwath.blogspot.in/2009/

5. Mimamsa: Mimamsa deals with analysis of Vedic mantras. There are two branches of Mimamsa called Purva mimamsa and Uttara mimamsa. The Purva mimamsa analyses the Karma part of Vedas and the Uttara mimamsa for Jnana part.
6. Vedanta:  Vedanta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period. Vedanta again has several divisions and primary is Advaita and Dvaita.
Advaita literally means "not two, sole, unity". It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism. Its metaphysics is a form of absolute monism that is all ultimate reality is interconnected oneness. Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas, espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities.



What are Vedas and What does it Preach?

Ancient Vedic philosophy basically comprises of Vedas, Puranas and Upanishads. The Vedas are perhaps the oldest written text on our planet today. The Vedas are divided into four groups, Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda.

Sages those days where discussing questions like - What is life? Is there a creator? Who created Universe and how are we related to other living beings in this universe etc. These questions were answered by Self Realization and knowledge sharing amongst scholars those days. Let us discuss some brief details for these Vedas.
1. Rig Veda: Hymns in Prayer (Stotras) forms dedicated to Gods in tradition. It is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten books (Sanskrit: mandalas). The hymns are dedicated to Rigvedic deities. The books were composed by sages and poets from different priestly groups over a period. About two-thirds of Rigveda is about the gods Agni (Fire) and Indra (Ruler of the gods). Rigveda contains a sense of intimate communion between Nature and the Rishis or visionaries
2. Sama Veda: The Sama-Veda is the “Veda of chants” or “Knowledge of melodies”. Hymns in Music& Melody form. A collection of hymns used by the priests during the Soma sacrifice. Many of these duplicate in part or in whole hymns from the Rig Veda
3. Yajur Veda is the Veda of ritual. The ritual is to recreate the universe within our own psyche and thereby unite the individual with the universal
4. Atharva Veda: Hymns which were focused on avoid calamities and sufferings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedas

The Puranas
The Purana literature are in story form and voluminous in nature. There are 18 main puranas and most of the popular puranas were written by Vyasa. Puranas were the medium to teach the common man on values of life through an intelligent weaving of mythological stories. Some of the most popular puranas include Skanda purana, Agni Purana, Bhagavatha Purana , Vishnu Purana , Siva Purana and so on…..
The Upanishads:
The Upanishads are largely philosophical works in dialog form. They discuss question of nature philosophy and the fate of the soul, and contain some mystic and spiritual interpretations of the Vedas. The compiler of the Vedas and Puranas was Vyasa and referred as Veda Vyasa.

Spread of Vedic Culture across Indian sub-continent:

This Vedic culture and school of thoughts (referred as Sanatana Dharma) at one point was all over India and South East Asia. You can still see the remains of this rich culture in the Hindu temples of Angkor Wat, Bali and Thailand.
Sages were main reason to spread this culture and wherever these sages have travelled, the culture has spread. It starts from Agastya, Adi Shankaracharya so on.
For example, Sage Agastya is reason to spread Vedic culture across South India. In Tamil traditions, Agastya is considered as the father of the Tamil language and the compiler of the first Tamil grammar, called Agathiyam. Agastya has been a culture hero in Tamil traditions and appears in numerous Tamil texts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agastya

Later scholars like Adi Shankaracharya helped to unite various school of thoughts under one single foundation of Sanatana Dharma (currently referred as Hinduism). Adi Shankara travelled across the Indian Subcontinent to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. The united Indian culture what we see today was due to Adi Shankara’s contribution those days.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara

Most people say that it was Adi Shankaracharya who brought major reforms in Hindu philosophy while debating merits and demerits of Vedas with other thinkers and during this time, he abolished animal sacrifices and introduced Coconut breaking as an option to animal sacrifice. Even till this day Coconut is called “ Khopda” in North India and hence requested all Brahmans to officially be vegetarian and the sacrifice must be that of breaking coconut. This is the actual fact and later Hindu rituals mentioned the importance of breaking a coconut. Adi Shankaracharya has brought several such reforms. You can observe that in Hindus, we offer rice to crows during death rituals as Pinda. This is not the case in ancient central Asian people that followed similar like Hinduism and pray similar deities that we pray in Hindu belief system. Ancient central Asian people that got migrated to India as Parsi community still offers human to crow as rituals and still practiced in Mumbai around Hanging Gardens. I have covered in-depth data in Section 2 on cultural similarities below.

To support this fact, I traveled to Bali island ( Indonesia) in 2009. This island has almost 96% of Hindu population which arrived before Adi Shankaracharya . I did home stay with communities in Bali and then did detail study on Hindu practices in this island. Fact is, Hindus in Bali do animal sacrifices, offer non-vegetarian food like Pork, Chicken to deities like Vishnu, Brahma, Ganesha etc and this make them little different from non-violent methods that we follow here in India. Even in India, some tribes still do animal sacrifices and also you can find animal sacrifices in Nepal which got banned recently.

2. What is Hinduism? Which script was used to write Vedas? Who was the founder?

As per Indian Supreme Court - When we think of the Hindu religion, unlike other religions in the world, the Hindu religion does not claim any one prophet; it does not worship any one god; it does not subscribe to any one dogma; it does not believe in any one philosophic concept; it does not follow any one set of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not appear to satisfy the narrow traditional features of any religion or creed. It may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more. This is exactly the fact.

 Hindu could:

1. Follow any of the Hindu schools of philosophy, such as Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita (non-dualism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism with non-dualism)
2. Follow a tradition centred on any particular form of the Divine, such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism
3. Practice any one of the various forms of yoga systems in order to achieve moksha – that is freedom in current life (jivanmukti) or salvation in after-life (videhamukti)
4. Practice bhakti or puja for spiritual reasons, which may be directed to one's guru or to a divine image.A visible public form of this practice is worship before an idol or statue.

Few of western research and theories which I got chance to read in Internet seems to be propagating about Aryan "invasion" around 1500BC in Indian sub-continent and mentioning Aryans came from outside which appears to be incorrect and this theory leads to unnecessary racial differences in our country. We have already seen two world wars in name of Aryan race by Hitler, where he failed to understand the meaning of "Arya" itself as given in Vedas. "Arya" refers as Noble and their is no racial word attached to it and unfortunately our politicians are still en-cashing this theory for vote bank and dividing this country based on theories given by East India company(British Rule). Anyways, our Indian culture is several times strong enough to handle all these theories and thanks to all reforms done by great Vedic sages in times. However my one kind request to research teams is that, instead of mentioning "invasion", we should refer that we all humans come from civilization/ideas sharing similar DNA which got evolved periodically and this civilization supported to have a similar belief system across the world that we all follow as of today. I do agree that migrations happen and do agree R1a DNA concept based on study of Y chromosomes that I have done from several years, however migrations happen not only because of only invasions, but due to various factors like climatic conditions and our ancient Saraswat Brahmin community is best living example in India to prove this theory wrong who know the actual reason for migration that I have covered in detail below. India has a very beautiful heritage and its ancient past should be respected. It is only in India and few countries in Indian sub-continent, people across the world still get chance to see their respective ancestral past or heritage that is still nurtured and protected even after several invasions from invaders. 

Coconut breaking ritual in Hindu belief system instead of animal sacrifices is one best example for reform that our sages brought and there are several reforms like these. You can refer (Vedic school of thoughts) mentioned above in this blog and see the level of knowledge that our sages had in past on science of self realization and atomic theories that even modern science cannot challenge. The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India and our current Indian constitution also preaches and adapts same tolerance("Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam") in accepting all belief system.

Let us start actual fact findings from Human Y DNA on how people of different culture arrived here in ancient India: 

IMPORTANT NOTE : I am not interested to debate who came from where, since series of people migrations have taken place from North to South, west to east and now we have established ourselves in boundary as country, state etc. Migrations have started even during ICE AGE and also after the end of last ICE age. Migrations have happened in multiple waves to make our Indian Culture very diverseYou can refer my conclusion and importance of India that has helped to protect world culture below and the reason why India is secular. "Hinduism" itself is "Secular". Since this topic is very huge, I will limit my interest only with R1a DNA and locating genetic ancestors, since it looks that most our ancient Hindu mythologies are associated with this Haplogroup R1a.
As you are aware, R-M207 - Haplogroup R* Y-DNA (xR1,R2) was found in 24,000-year-old remains from Mal'ta in Siberia near Lake Baikal and its branched R1 is R-M173, also known as R1, has been common throughout Europe and South Asia since pre-history and R2 (R-M479) lineage is found predominantly in South Asia and I am particularly looking at Haplogroup R1a which is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup that is currently distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia, Central Europe, southern Siberia to South Asia. Finally in my entire blog, I just want to prove that we all are from same DNA and complete blog is basis of below scientific fact to support universal brotherhood.


Below is the R1a spread



Few years back, I got a chance to read few mythological stories of various communities that live around Eastern European countries, Russia etc something like this @ https://www.slavorum.org/5-most-popular-tales-from-slavic-mythology/ and these stories appear in several books, internet sites and possibly you could have seen them in many Hollywood movies. For me, it looked almost similar to mythological stories that we learn from our childhood here in India on Kamadhenu, Stories of Sage Vishwamitra, Stories of seven sages,

To add, in our current Hindu society in India, we use the term gotra means clan. It broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor or patriline. According to the Upanishads written those days, Gautama, Bharadvaja, Visvamitra, Jamadagni, Vashishtha, Kashyapa and Shandilya are seven Vedic civilization sages (also known as Saptarishi) and to this list, Agastya is also sometimes added. The progeny of these sages is declared to be gotras. The gotra system is followed even in modern India. Marriages within the gotra ('sagotra' marriages) are not permitted under the rule of monogamy in the traditional matrimonial system. People within the gotra are regarded as siblings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_gotras

As mentioned above, I am trying to locate the families of these sages, culture associated from them on all locations of R1a DNA spread using below similarities and see how Hinduism evolved in times.

1. Locating our Vedic Sages, Deva Loka, Indra Loka, Vedic towns, Vedic Rivers and mountains based on R1a DNA spread

Most of our Hindu mythologies are facts that has happened at locations near by as they are captured in Vedas and Puranas with places mentioned, however due to story telling from almost 10000 years from generations to generations with several communication gaps etc and to add human imagination, it has made us to think and believe very differently.

I go by what our famous Indian politician Bal Gangadhar Tilak  and this theory on Arctic theory of the origin of Vedic Sages” . He mentioned that the ancestral home of Vedic Sages were near northern Eurasia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Arctic_Home_in_the_Vedas




In 1903, he wrote the book "The Arctic Home in the Vedas". In it, he argued that the Vedas could only have been composed in the Arctics, and the Vedic sages brought them south after the onset of the last ice age. He proposed a new way to determine the exact time of the Vedas. According to his theory, he mentions that Arctic regions were warm and favorable for human living. When climate changed unfavorably there, Vedic sages migrated towards south and then finally to India. I am here just to prove his theory due to technologies available like Google Maps.

To support Tilak's theory and using google maps, we can now easily locate all these Vedic towns and interesting fact is that, most of ancient mythological stories that could be pre-vedic era or experimental Vedic era around Rig-Vedic times that have similar deities with almost same names like Hindu mythologies appears to be in and around Ural Mountains - Mount_NarodnayaAltai Mountains, Arkaim, Ural river, Caspian sea, Black sea ( Eastern Europe, Norther and Southern Russia and Western Tajikistan, Northern Afghanistan). I have covered in-depth details on similarities below.

Let us start the journey :-) :-) and to mention about my background, I belong to Kaunsha Gotra of Rigvedic Sage Vishvamitra. Vishwamitra was a descendant of Kaushika and hence Kaunsha Gotra. As captured in our Vedas, Puranas, Mahabharata, Vishvamitra is located from Kamboja who were famous in ancient times for their excellent breed of horses and as remarkable horsemen located in the Uttarapatha or north-west. Their territories were located beyond Gandhara, beyond Pakistan, Afghanistan laying in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_towns_and_villages_in_Tajikistan ( Most of towns have Sanskrit Origin and find references of same town names in our Vedas, Puranas)  and similarly check this https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_in_Uzbekistan and 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bukhara ( Referred as 'Vihara' earlier) and also refer Russian towns : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_and_towns_in_Russia


Striking similarities - Sites of Yama culture, Daksha, Swastika experiments that Vedic sages tried to experiment around Narada mountains(Ural- Russia) and these were in early Hindu Mythology and the deities we still pray today in our temples:


Yama ( Death God)  - Location of Yamna culture in Russia during Bronze age(4000 BC).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamna_culture and their usage of Svarog(Heaven) by Slavs -  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svarog 

Daksha Stone map

http://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-ancient-writings/controversial-dashka-stone-120-million-year-old-map-006589



Human settlements in the Ural Mountains that had Vedic Knowledge

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_human_settlement_in_the_Ural_Mountains

Many conclude that Altai  mountains could be Deva Loka ( Deva's Place):

Many people believe that below Altai Mountains has very close similarities for places mentioned for Cosmic region mentioned in - Rig Veda 3.23.4 as it states Mount Meru ( Sumero) is the central region. The entire Cosmos divided into seven concentric island continents surrounded by oceans. It comprise of Jambudvipa, Plaksadvipa, Salmalidvipa, Kusadvipa, Krouncadvipa, Sakadvipa, and Pushkaradvipa.  This cosmic region is mentioned in almost all belief system we know.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altai_Mountains 

https://rgdn.info/en/mirovaya_gora._v_mifah_i_legandah_mira

Reference : https://rgdn.info/en/shambala

Arkaim could be Indra Loka ( Indra's Place) and or some say Yama Loka:
Early ancient people trying to do a Model of recreating Universe(swastika) as mentioned in Rig Veda in Arkaim ( Referred as Amravathi) - Swasthik Rig Vedic Mandala city 

Mountains after Sage Narada - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Narodnaya

NOTE : Sage Narada was messenger from Deva loka to Indra loka as per Hindu Mythology.

I am sure that excavations at Arkaim ( Swastica City) built by Vedic sages will answer this mystery and for the fact, all these are related to Vedic astronomy our sages used to experiment during RigVedic times and they are known doing this from almost 5000BCE era as Vedic experiments. In India, we get several completed structures like this and much more advanced like Jantar Mantar in  New Delhi and Jaipur(India)

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/older-stonehenge-arkaim-russia-00251

http://www.iflscience.com/environment/over-50-geoglyphs-discovered-kazakhstan/


Assura's Place:

Locations - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assur
Ashur was made a World Heritage site in 2003.

Below data from Rig Veda 1.35.10 describes Asura as kind leader.
हिरण्यहस्तो असुरः सुनीथः सुमृळीकः स्ववाँ यात्वर्वाङ् ।

अपसेधन्रक्षसो यातुधानानस्थाद्देवः प्रतिदोषं गृणानः ॥१०॥

It explains that gold-handed Asura, kind leader is coming ...pray deity(he), if worshipped in the evening, is at hand, driving away Rakshasas and Yatudhanas.

When it comes to usage of Assur or Assur kings as referred both in Hindu mythology or Sumerians mythology, actual place referring this name did exist and we have this place even now and also have complete history of Assur kings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria

Locations - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assur
Ashur was made a World Heritage site in 2003.

Reference : https://www.britannica.com/place/Ashur-ancient-city-Iraq

Reference : http://www.independent.co.uk/incoming/nine-of-syria-and-iraqs-10-world-heritage-sites-are-in-danger-as-isis-ravages-centuries-of-history-10481006.html

Asshur was the father of the Assyrians and the country was named after him. He was regarded as "the great god, king of all the gods." It was Asshur who gave power and life to every priestly king, and this was his symbol and we have similar reference in Hindu mythology. Asuras are described in Indian texts as powerful superhuman demigods or demons with good or bad qualities. The good Asuras are called Adityas and are led by Varuna, while the malevolent ones are called Danavas and are led by Vritra. In the earliest layer of Vedic texts Agni, Indra and other gods are also called Asuras, in the sense of them being "lords" of their respective domains, knowledge and abilities. In later Vedic and post-Vedic texts, the benevolent gods are called Devas, while malevolent Asuras compete against these Devas and are considered "enemy of the gods" or demons.

Similarly looking for data on other Vedic sages, I was able to get Caspian sea named after Kasyappa.

Location of Caspian Sea in Russia : 
https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaspische_Zee

I happened to see some old Persian maps that was available in internet and see that Caspian see is named after our Vedic sage Kasyappa  ( Kaspische Zee)


Then I started doing few google maps search and started locating many of towns near Western Tajikistan, Afghanistan,Uzbekistan are closely named after Hindu Sages. Samarkand is best example that appears to be named after Hindu Sage Marakand.  Location of Samarkand from google maps:

https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Samarkand,+Uzbekistan/@39.5887664,66.1610701,9z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x3f4d191960077df7:0x487636d9d13f2f57!8m2!3d39.627012!4d66.9749731

Using Google maps and locating towns till Kaspische Zee ( Caspian sea), I could locate so many similarities of Hindu names used as we have read in our mythology. I happened to learn that people around Caspian sea till today use "vid" and "ved" are derived from the Sanskrit 'vid' which means 'Perceiving' and use Sanskrit word 'Dasvidanya' for Good Bye. I have covered more details in the blog below under cultural similarities section(2).

You could get several 100's of towns, rivers and mountains like Shurchi, Muhchak, Gowrudak, Surkhandarya province that has Sanskrit origin and associated with our Hindu mythology. 

Some say that Russia is derived from Sanskrit Russi ( Sage) and Moscow is derived from Moksha(Salvation).
Some towns that end with "grad" comes from Gram ( Sanskrit). And some say that Soviet that came from Svet Svet is white in Sanskrit) and Bolshevik from Bal-Sevik(Learned Sages).
Hindu's current funeral rituals almost match the early experiments of Sintashta culture


As mentioned by B G Tilak, many scientists and archaeological experts now conclude that after end of last lce age around 11th century BCE, hunting community started settling down near river valleys, learnt farming and slowly smaller cultural group developed. You will find several 100's of Hinduism or Vedic kind of cultural experiments in and around Ural mountains that existed as early as 5000 BCE and is similar to currently existing Hindu culture and we pray same deities even today in our temples. Kurgan Hypothesis has very strong support of DNA science for migration proofs and at same time support this hypothesis of cultural movements that happened in times. Highest number of scientists and archaeological experts around the world currently agree this hypothesis.

Deities of Slavic Religion those days are almost like Deities of current Hindus. You can find 'ROD' and they refer him as 'Praboh' as Supreme GOD.  Still small people in Ural region do same practices of Homa around fire and you can easily locate this in internet. More details can be found in below URL:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_Native_Faith

Vedic sages migration to India 

Vishvamitra is credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including Gayatri Mantra. Vishwamitra was king earlier and had conflicts with Sage Vashista over sacred cow "Kamadhenu". During conflict with Sage Vashista, Vishvamitra realizes power of sages and understands that power obtained by penances was far greater than mere physical might. He renounced his kingdom and began his quest to become a greater rishi than Sage Vashista. Undergoing many austerities, Vishvamitra at last obtained the title of Brahmarishi from Vashista himself. In Rigvedic hymn 7.33.9, Vasistha is described as a scholar who moved across the Sindu river to establish his school in Uttarakand(Indian state) now. He was married to Arundhati, and therefore he was also called Arundhati Nath, meaning the husband of Arundhati. Vishvamitra had a daughter named Shakuntala. Son of Shakuntala became a great emperor. He came to be known as Emperor Bharata, in whose name the land of India got its name Bharata and now India :-)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kambojas



Since river Sarasvati river getting dried up, as information that I have from our ancestors, Sage Vishwamitra and Sage Parushuram are credited to support migration of our community from Sarasvati river basin to Bengal ( Gaud Kingdom) and hence we are referred as Gaud Saraswat Brahmin. There are several evidences of Kambojas of North West Afghanistan in current Bangladesh ( Kingdom of Gaudpati). There are still Kambojas in Afghanistan and Pakistan who follow Islam faith are referred as Kamboj
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahasthangarh

Below migration route from Kambhoja kingdom to eastern parts of India provides several evidences and this route was important trading and also people migration route during ancient days:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvaravati%E2%80%93Kamboja_route

With DNA study, it looks that most of Gaud Brahmins match R1a ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a )

Detailed references : http://www.eupedia.com/genetics/famous_y-dna_by_haplogroup.shtml

Locating Rivers that have Sanskrit Origin
Most of Russian rivers even today have Sanskrit equivalent
Current Russian River Name
Sanskrit Equivalent
English Meaning
Volga
Bul-ga
One that plunges, submerges & emerges
Pichora
Pichchora
Pipe/Flute
Dvina
Dwaina
Second
Vishera
Visara
Abundance
Varzuga
Varshauga
Torrent
Voronya
Varunya
Coming from god of water
Pregolya
Pragalya
That which falls off
Narva
Narba
To move
Kuma
Kuma
Lake
Tereshka
Taras
Energy
Kama
Kama
Wild
Samara
Samara
Battle
Kokshaga
Kokaha
White Horse
Moksha
Moksha
Salvation
Avacha
Avachya
Southern
Lokanka
Lu-Ganga
Dividing River

I could also locate most of rivers in Afghanistan that have Hindu names:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hari_(Afghanistan)


Buddhist monastery hand-carved in the bluff of the river Hereyrud existed in the first centuries during the prevalence of Buddhism. In Avesta, they refer this river as Horayu ( Sanskit : Sarayu)

We can locate few more Rig-Vedic rivers in Western Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and some in Pakistan.

Rig-Vedic river Kubha (Kabul) - Kabul is derived from Kubha 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabul_River

and some more like Krumu (in Kurrum) and Suvastu (in Swat)

Most important of all rivers is Amu Darya and was known as Oxus river and Greek meaning of Oxus is Sharp/SightDarya is Persian for "sea". Oxus allowed large-scale irrigation systems which was the main reason of its area's rich history. Persians refer this also as də Āmu Sind.

Reference for Greek meaning for Oxus : https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Oxus 

Details about Amu Darya and History:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amu_Darya

Vakhsh in its eastern parts(Vak means Speech in Sanksrit)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vakhsh_River

Sapta-Sindhu meaning 7 rivers is the term which gave birth to the word “Hindu”. Sapta-Sindhu was referred to as Hapta-Hindu by Persians etc. The people of this region and culture, the Sapta-Saindhavas were referred to as hapta-Haindavas by Persians etc. . The term is found in Avesta of Zoroastrians.

Just for my curiosity, I tried changing 'S' to 'H' like Sindhu to Hindu and was able to locate similar Goddess like Saraswati. Persians referred as Harahvati

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anahita

These two rivers (Vakhsh and Amu-Darya) flows for a length of 2400 km across modern Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan into Lake Aral. There are evidences that earlier, it used to meet Caspian sea(Kaspische Zee) and the river course got changed possibly due to earth quakes.



Based on ancient town names that has Sanskrit origin referring Rig Vedic sages and the location they belonged as captured in our Puranas, Vedas and also the way Rig-Veda has mentioned the flow of rivers, river names associated and evidences of large-scale irrigation systems and ancient history, many Western historians mention that there is very high possibility of  Vedic civilization and ancient dynasty being centered around the Amu Sind and Vakhsh (Vaku) rivers. The one river Oxus signifies sharp/sight and the other signifies speech. There is a relationship with Iksh-vaku (Sharp sight-speech), the well-known sage. Iksh-vaku is the great grandson of sage Kashyapa. Many western scholars predict that, it was this dynasty that moved towards Gangetic belt and established Ikshvaku kingdom in Ayodhya(India) when rivers in Hindu-Kush mountains changed its course or also possibly due to internal conflicts.

The debate on which side of Hindu-kush mountains the Vedic civilization originated still continues and has resulted in ideology wars resulting in formation of several political parties like left wing, ring wing, Dravidian parties and secular parties in India. Indian scholars supported with nationalist ideology predict Vedic civilization on eastern side of Hindu-Kush near Harappan civilization and western scholars with secular ideology predict on western side of Hindu-Kush mountains(from Vaksha River) towards Amu-darya river belt and mention about Aryan migration theory towards east as we have read in our school history books. However, both side agree that most of mountains in Hindu Kush ranges and rivers from Hindu-Kush are clearly mentioned in Rig-Veda and it is only matter of this or that side which scholars from both side need to come to conclusion. I do not want to join this debate and become a political prey :-). I am just placing both the facts. Western scholars go further and mention that rivers changed course in Hindu kush mountains due to possible earth quakes or possibly due to internal conflicts and give reasons that few rulers moved still further towards west and established Hurrian Mitanni kingdom and others crossed Hindu Kush and traveled eastwards towards the Gangetic basin to continue Ikshvaku dynasty near Ayodhya,India from which Lord Rama, Lord Buddha belong.

For the fact, there are striking similarities between the Eastern Iranian language of Avestan and Sanskrit, which may support the notion that the split was contemporary with the Vedic civilization living in Afghanistan at a very early stage. If we talk about archaeological evidences similar like Hindu mythology or epics, we get several 100's of them from Sumerian clay tablets ( 4000 BC old), Yamna cultureSamara culture, Kama culture that lies on western part of Hindu Kush mountains and we do not get sufficient Hindu mythological epics or texts or archaeological evidence from Harappan civilization apart from few animal or deities seals that have Indus scripts and potteries that was used for trading. I did travel different parts of our country, visited several museums, visited several ancient caves, but did not get a single piece of evidence or literatures done using ancient scripts. All literature were either early Brahmi or Pali script that happened to be around 1000BC. I have done detailed study on ancient scripts in section 3. Based on latest data available on genetics considering R1a DNA ancestors, it provides strong support of migration from west to east. These migrations have taken place in several waves that includes the migration of trading communities, few tribes and that is the main reason Indian culture is so diverse and we have so many deities to pray. India has accepted all cultures that arrived here in times and has rejected none to make it so diverse and our Sages have played a prominent role in keeping the people united and creating theories and also marriages between deities so that everyone is happy. Archaeological excavations also clearly indicate that during early Harappan period (about 3200–2600 BCE) have similarities in pottery, seals, figurines, ornaments with Mesopotamian civilization and Greeks. There was also intensive sea trade from Indus civilization with Central Asia. In Mesopotamian (Sumerian texts), we see that there is repeated reference to three important centers with which they traded: Magan (could be current Oman), Dilmun (could be current Bahrain) and Meluhha (referred to Indus Valley civilization). This kind of trading continued even during Mauryan rule and also later dynasties as we see trading even today.

A Vedic temple dedicated to Jwalamai, inscribed with Gayatri mantra in Sanskrit, was located in the port town of Baku on the Caspian Sea (Kaspische Zee ) built by the Baku Hindu traders community around the time of the fall of the Shirvanshah dynasty

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ateshgah_of_Baku

https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Baku,+Azerbaijan/@40.4206242,49.6625464,9.48z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x40307d6bd6211cf9:0x343f6b5e7ae56c6b!8m2!3d40.4092617!4d49.8670924

Additional fact to support migration theory is, both of these early dynasty rulers (Hurrian-speaking Mitanni peoplewhich moved towards west and people related to Ikshvaku dynasty of Ayodhya that moved from Hindu-kush eastwards pray same Vedic GOD ( Indra, Varuna, Mitra, Agni etc)

The Hurrian-speaking Mitanni people and the king of Mitanni refer series of Hurrian gods like Mitrašil, Uruvanaššil, Indara, and Našatianna, who correspond to the Vedic gods Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Asvin).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassite_deities

Same Gods are also prayed by Ikshvaku dynasty of Ayodhya, India

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikshvaku_dynasty


Important personalities that we pray as Lord as of now including Lord Rama, Lord Buddha belonged to this dynasty.

Using the Suryavamsa family tree and details that I collected, I was easily able to link to Nanda dynasty and then to Maurayan Empire and so on till latest dynasties of current Independent India. There is not even a single breakage and this itself is proof that Ramayana and Mahabharata were actual facts. Lord Rama and Lord Krishna did exist those days and all historical places that existed those days still exist even now with same name and few got changed with invasions. Mythologies associated with these historical leaders got added later on when people wanted to make story telling interesting when they passed on to generations.
Keeping aside mythologies, our Rishis those days were brilliant. They were in position to self-realize and understand formless cosmic power. They called it Brahman, the transcendental, universal Supreme Power, who was one without the second. The Upanishads hailed this concept which would bring forth the idea of universal brotherhood, and the philosophy of all creation being one family as Vasudhaiva Kutumbkum
Doing deep dive in study of epics of early Sumerians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks,Slavic mythology near eastern Europe with Indian mythology, it looks almost same. There is considerable interest in study of ancient flood in most of research universities by scientists. There are high evidences that this flood could have happened during those days near Black Sea and shocking is, this tale appears in almost all the belief system that we know with maximum similarities. There is a great flood in the epic of Gilgamesh of Sumerians and we find similar tale of Matsya-avatar(Matsya Puranas) in Hindu belief system that happened almost same time during creation of these epics, Greeks have similar story about the Great Flood referring Zeus and to finally add, tale about great flood is also present in Bible and Quran as Noah and his ark.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah%27s_Ark

Flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in most of belief system in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_flood_myths

As per Sanatana Dharama belief system(Hinduism), below is picture of first avatar of Lord Vishnu. Matsya(Lord Vishnu) is described to have rescued the first man, Manu from a great deluge. Manu accompanied by the seven Vedic sages survives by boarding the ark, which Matsya pulls to safety.

Refer tales and epics like Epic of Gilgamesh(Mesopotamians) along with Vedas/Puranas in Hindu mythology . It is almost similar.

Even Slavic Mythology is almost same like what we have in Hindu mythology.
https://www.slavorum.org/5-most-popular-tales-from-slavic-mythology/

Below are ancient artefacts depicting greatest Mesopotamians epic ( Epic of Gilgamesh and with carbon dating, this could be around 2000BC-3000BC collected by archaeologists). Gilgamesh fighting with Bull of heaven and Humbaba ( Man-Lion kind of creature) and we find similar tales in Hindu mythology.

To further add, take current Iraq's capital Baghdad as example. All scholars agree that it had earlier Assyrian origin and the name that time has been referred as Baghdadu by Assyrian or Assur kings. In our Hindu mythology, Narak'asura' is a legendary asura who also had son named Baghdadu

Refer above an ancient map of central Asia and take famous town Urartu or Ur as example which is birth point of most of belief system as we see as of today. Ur is the Assyrian term for a geographical region as Village, Town and Armenian “Ayrarat". Ur also has same meaning in Sanskrit, Kannada, Tamil etc. as town or village. Even today, we refer towns and villages with ending 'Ur'. Bengal'ur'Mys'ur', Tumk'ur', Nagp'ur'etc.

This Assyrian city is located on a plateau above the Tigris River in Mesopotamia (today known as Qalat Sherqat, northern Iraq)It does not stop only with reference of names of cities and countries in Central Asia. It had almost similar belief system those days like we have in Indian sub-continent as of today.

Bagh refers “GOD” and dad “given”, translating to “God-given” and both of these civilization refer this town with same meaning from ancient days till today. Baghvad Purana is "God given epic" in our Hindu Mythology. Again, we refer GOD as 'Bhag' for Bhagvan Buddha, Bhagvan Rama, Bhagvan Krishna etc. A devotee of Bhagvan Krishna is called a Bhagavata. This is my current surname :-).

'Bag'van related names appears as far as Russia, Romania and most of European countries. This is used by automobile companies like Bogdan group, famous football players and other great personalities. 'Bogdan' or Bohdan is derived from the Slavic words Bog/Boh (Cyrillic: Бог), meaning "god", and dan (Cyrillic: дан), meaning "gift. Either Bogdan or Bohdan may be used in Poland.

'Dan' is gift in Sanskrit, Kannada, Hindi and almost all India languages even today and Bhag is god for referring Bhagvad Gita, Bhagvan and Bhag followers like us as 'Bhagwath'
Check list of names from Bogdan that are linked to famous personalities across the world:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogdan

I just took my surname  'Bhagwath' as example and was able to achieve similarities across the world with people having similar surnames. Just take below example of river names, nouns and verbs used by Slavs. It is almost similar like Sanskrit that is used here in India.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_languages


Nouns ( Russian)
Sanskrit Equivalent
English Meaning
Kogda
Kada
When
Oba
ubha
Both
Tot
Tat
That
Vsegda
Sada
Always
Togda
Tada
Then
Putnik
pathika
Traveller
Estestvo
astitva
Being
Dom
Dham
House
Jena
Jani
Wife
Mat
Matr
Mother
Syn
Sunu
Son
Snoha
Snusa
Daughter-in-law
Svoystvo
svatva
Property
Dever
Devar
Brother-in-law
Zyat
Jata,Jati
Son-in-law
Brat
Bhratah
brother
Verbs (Russian)
Sanskrit Equivalent
English Meaning
vad – vadit
vad – vadati
to confer or dispute about; to contend, quarrel
pros – prosit
prach – prachhati
to ask, to question, interrogate
vɨspra – vɨsprašivaet
viprach – viprcchati
to ask various questions, make various inquiries
peč – pečyot
pас – pacati
to cook, bake, roast, boil
lay – laet
rai – rayati
to bark
bɨ – budet
bhū – bhavati
to become, be
tuz – tuzit
tuj – tojayati
to hurt
gor – gorit
ghṛ – ghаrati
to shine, burn
las – laskaet
las – lasāti
to play, sport, frolic; to embrace
voz – vozit
vah – vahati
to carry, transport, convey
lov – lovit
labh – labhate
to take, seize, catch
lel – lelyeet
lal – lālayati
to  caress, fondle, foster, cherish
bav – bаvit
bhū – bhavayati
exist, be found, live, stay, abide, happen, occur; to cause to be or become; to cherish, foster
kasl – kaslyaet
kās – kāsate
to cough
svet – svetaet
śvit – śvetate
to be bright or white
mer – mryot
mṛ – marati
to die, decease
pi – p’yot
pī – piyate
to drink
suš – sušit
śuṣ – śuṣyati
to dry, become dry or withered
mor – morit
mṛ – mārayati
to cause to die, kill, slay
pad – padyot
pad – padyate
to fall
perd – perdit
pard – pardati
to break wind downwards
boya – boitsya
bhyas – bhyasate
to fear, be afraid, tremble
otda – otdayot
uddā – uddadāti
to give away
vɨd – vɨdayot
vidā – vidadāti
to give out, distribute, grant
po – poit
pa – pāyayati
to cause to drink, give to drink, water (horses or cattle)
i – idyot
iṭ – eṭati
to go
bɨv – bɨvaet
bhū – bhavati
to happen, occur
mes – mesit
miśr – miśrayati
to mix, mingle, blend, combine
zna – znaet
jña – jānāti
to know, have knowledge
liz – ližet
lih – lihati
to lick
vɨliz – vɨlizɨvaet
vilih – vilelihat
to lick continually or repeatedly
živ – živaet
jīv – jīvati
to live, be or remain alive
ver – veraet
vṛ – varati
to cove, screen, veil, conceal, hide, surround, obstruct, to close (a door)
lyub – lyubit
lubh – lubhati
to desire greatly or eagerly, long for, be interested in
vorot – vorotit
vṛt – vartayati
to cause to turn or revolve
top – topit
tap – tapati
to make hot or warm
mer – merit
mi – miroti
to measure, meter, out, mark
do – doit
dhe –  dhayati
to suck, drink
val – valit
val – valiti
to turn, turn round
vɨlup – vɨlupit
vilup – vilumpati
to tear or break off or to pieces, wound, lacerate pull out or up; to tear away
slav – slavit
śram – śramyati
sound, shout, loud praise
tyan – tyanet
tan – tanoti
to stretch (a cord), extend
ri – rinet
rī – riṇāti
to release, set free, let go
vert – vertit
vṛt – vartate
to turn, turn round, revolve, roll
rev – revyot
ru – ravīti
to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud
val – valyaet
val – valate
to turn, turn round
vid – vidit
vid – vidati
to notice,  observe; to know, understand, perceive, learn, become or be acquainted with, be conscious of
isk – iščet
iṣ –  icchati; eṣati
to seek, search; to desire, wish, long for, request
proda – prodast
pradā – pradatte
to give away, give, offer, sell
oddel – oddelyaet
uddal – uddalati
to split away, break away
tryas – tryasyot
tras –  trasyati
to tremble
bles – bleščet
bhlāś – bhlāśate
to shine, beam, glitter
sid – sidit
sad – sīdati
to sit upon or in or at smth.
spa – spit
svap – svapiti
to sleep,  fall asleep
rɨd – rɨdaet
rud – rodati
to weep, cry, howl, roar, lament, wail
klešč – kleščit
kliś – kliśnati
to torment, cause pain
bde – bdit
budh – budhyati
to be awake
lip – lipnet
lip – limpyati
to be smeared; to be attached to, to stick, to adhere
lep – lepit
lip – lepayati
the act of smearing, daubing, anointing, plastering
vɨtyan – vɨtyanet
vitan – vitanute
to spread out, to stretch, extend,  to unfold, display, exhibit, manifest
vɨživ – vɨživaet
vijīv – vijīvati
to revive, return to life
slad – sladit
svad – svadati
to make sweet or pleasant or agreeable
plav – plavaet
plu – plavate
to float, swim
bra – beryot
bhṛ – bharati
to hold, possess, have, keep
mni – mnit
mna – manate
to think, believe, imagine
pɨt – pɨtaet
piṭh – peṭhati
to inflict or feel pain
kas – kasaet
kaṣ – kaṣati
to  test, try; to rub
vɨver – vɨvernet
vivṛti – vivartate
to turn back or away
vert – vertaet
vṛt – vartate
to turn, turn round
vert – vertit
vrt – vartayati
to cause to turn or revolve
bud – budit
budh – budhyate
to wake up
vol – volit
vṛ – vṛṇoti; varayati
to choose, select, choose for one’s self, choose as; to like, love well
Sumerians also speak of seven divine sages(known as apkallu) guiding humanity like Saptarishi in Hindu belief system. The similar version of seven sages appears in Greece mythology and also in earlier Chinese mythology.
Sumerians during 3000BC has almost all similar GOD's that we have in Hindu belief system like Agni, Vayu, Surya, Kali, Yama etc.
Hindu MythologySumerian Mythology
INDRA(King of Gods)ASSHUR(King of Gods)
INDRANINAMMU
AGNI(God of Fire)URKI/ENKI (God of Fire)
YAMA(God of Death)NAMTAR(God of Death)
Vayu(God of Air)Enlil(God of Air)

Just take Yama as example whom we pray in Hindu Mythology. Sumerians referred Yama as Namtar. A parallel character in Iranian mythology and Zoroastrianism is known as Yima. In Chineese mythology, he is called as Yan. Japan, he is called Enma. In Korea, Yan is known as Yeomna. There is Yamna culture itself referring same GOD and this could initial GOD people prayed in Eastern Europe and culture evolved.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamna_culture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deities_of_Slavic_religion

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svarog  (Svarog is also heaven in Sanskrit)

Slavs still follow most of Hindu kind of culture in Russia, Romania etc. You can locate them in below link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_Native_Faith

The Hurrian-speaking Mitanni people and the king of Mitanni refer series of Hurrian gods like Mitrašil, Uruvanaššil, Indara, and Našatianna, who correspond to the Vedic gods Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Asvin).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassite_deities

Famous Rigveda's ritual practice 'soma' is referred by persians as 'haoma'. This is because 'S' is converted to 'H' in Persia (Example: Sindhu to Hindu).This ritual is still performed all over India when we move into new house. This is called as 'House warming ceremony' and also practiced in few cases to remove evil spirits.

Coming to Deities or Kings who ruled during those early dynastic time.


.As we all know, all these earlier civilizations like Mesopotamian civilization got destroyed in times and so as Babylonian, Egyptian, Roman, Persian and several 100's which had such a beautiful heritage and powerful empires got vanished except Sanatana Philosophy(Hinduism) that prevailed from oldest Sarasvati civilization and still strong as of today. Many people in Russia, Romania etc. even today love India because, there old ancestral culture is nurtured and preserved only in India. The main reason beyond this is Hinduism. Hinduism has no known founder and no single book to be followed which easily allowed scholars to do reforms for better philosophical and religious practices in times that can digest any king of cultural invasions. Hinduism is a culture that constantly evolves and not stagnant with set of rules. In my view, Sanatana Dharma( referred as Hinduism) is like Open Source Code and like other belief, it doesn't prescribe an absolute code of Dos and Don'ts and this made scholars to easily customize, do bug fixing and evolve to still better philosophy. There could be deep mythology added at few cults or tribal regions might still follow some animal sacrifices, however at higher source of knowledge of Dharma, it is purely science. The term 'Hindu' (Sindhu river got referred as Hindu from Persians) itself is relatively new and the word Hindu is not found in of our ancient Puranas or Vedas. Again, we should not debate each other belief system and I am strictly against it. We are in democratic India that supports freedom of religion or freedom of belief guaranteed by Article 25-28 of the Constitution and this should be respected always. Instead let us start understanding how Indus scripts got evolved to current form and this at least will make people understand in Indian sub-continent with valid proof that we all evolved from same source of humanity and we all share same DNA.

Understanding Ancient Scripts and how did it evolve to current form:

If we talk about writing system those ancient days (pictorial representation of symbols) which have evolved to our current alphabets, we clearly find that all these civilization had at least many similarities as mentioned below as one example.The earliest writing systems evolved independently and at roughly the same time in Egypt and Mesopotamia, but current scholarship suggests that Mesopotamia's writing appeared first. That writing system, invented by the Sumerians, emerged in Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE or still earlier.

References : http://www.ancientscripts.com/sumerian.html



Below picture is Indus Seal that was recovered as few artifacts from those era (2600 BC Indus valley civilization) …. Read as 'ka-nta-ma-ha-an’ could refer that the person sitting is great and people might have referred this character as GOD.


But nothing flashed my mind then and got busy spending time with my 6 months old daughter and was quietly listening to her and the way she was trying to communicate for her demands. This is general observations we all experience with our kids and we learn from babies that they normally speak only two alphabets till age of 1 year…. Like “Ma” for mother, “Wo” for water, “Da”, “Ta” etc. and this is the way they start learning to communicate to full word and then sentences so on. After a while spending my good time with my daughter Ritu, something suddenly flashed my mind and I immediately questioned myself…. Is this the same way our ancestors communicated in those early civilizations time? And started investigating myself in internet. For the fact, my assumption was 100% true.

In fact, when human civilization happened, people those days used to speak only two letters and slowly developed to speak full word in course of centuries. Later they started representing them in form of pictorial diagrams which you easily locate in Internet or artefacts collected from those era in museums today.
If we properly see Harappan Signs or Indus valley signs (around 2500 BC) and the artefacts that were collected from these locations, it is clearly visible that people those days started representing these pictorial words as signs and this is the same representation that became our current alphabets in all our scripts.

It looks that all our alphabets have evolved from the same civilization and again due to trade happening those days from other three river valley civilization, it is somewhat same scripts used across several locations in world as of today.
If we come to 3rd BCE during Ashoka’s regime, most of his inscriptions in rock pillars were Brahmi script which is one of the most important writing systems in the world those days and further some of the earliest historical inscriptions found in India. Most importantly, it is the ancestor to hundreds of scripts found in South, Southeast, and East Asia.

Below is Brahmi rock inscriptions of Ashoka belong to 3rd Century BCE (300–200 BCE)

Did Brahmi come from Indus script?

Brahmi script appears to have actually come from Indus script and I am trying to place as many facts or findings that I have done and verified with few expert cyphers and data that I have collected in internet and few museums. However, it is little complex and I would prefer more research can be conducted by actual experts in this area

Please read more about Brahmi script in below URL:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmi_script


Let’s look below on how Brahmi could have been arrived from Indus script. Some are my representation considering single alphabet in sheet of paper as below:

Take example of “ga”, “ta” and “ka” below from Harappan to Brahmi…..




Just take our first alphabet “a” and it appears that there was also relation with Proto-Sinatic signs along with Indus signs and might have helped to evolve Brahmi from many centuries to current form.


Below are some of beautiful data that I collected from Internet (Wikipedia) and few photos from respective temples or historical places.

History of Tamil Script:

Look below…. Transformation of Indus sign ‘ma’ to ‘ma’ in Brahmi and then to early Tamil ‘ma’ and then finally in current form in below images.
 Look at the evolution of all Tamil scripts from Brahmi from those days till current form.
Similarly all other regional scripts including Sanskrit, Kannada and also the scripts that we see in Asia Pacific like Javanese, Thai etc. are all evolved from Brahmi which could have been evolved from Indus scripts.

Below is evolution of Kannada-Telegu scripts from Brahmi to current form

Conclusion:

Everyone here in India has freedom of religion or freedom of belief guaranteed by Article 25-28 of the Constitution. To be specific about Indian subcontinent, the common culture that we follow in our Indian subcontinent as of now was actually spread by Rishis (Saints) those days starting from Vedic times (Around 2000BC-3000BC). Rishis those days traveled length and breadth of this country debating the merits and demerits of various systems of philosophy (School of Thoughts) . We all know that Rishis those days achieved spiritual knowledge by self-realization and knowledge sharing by Gurukul system and during course of time, it helped our country to produce exceptional scholars in respective school of thoughts who preached philosophy in various modes and this actually helped our country to slowly get diverse culture as we see today and same way, several mythologies got created during course of time when these Saints tried to explain the spiritual knowledge to common man. Again, some great epics like Ramayana or Mahabharata that we read as of today were actual facts and some myths also got added eventually to make the story telling more interesting when it got passed from generations, however everyone tried to preach individual school of thoughts in best possible ways to common man. People who knew or provided this knowledge of "Universal Truth" considered themselves as Brahmans, people who engaged in warfare considered themselves as Kshatriyas and people engaged in service were considered as Shudras and so on which later helped to form caste system in society. When the same person changes his or her profession, caste was considered to be changed those days. However later on due to unfortunate dominance of particular community, this became a family tag and slowly got referred as community based caste system. Our scripts and languages as we today in current Sanskrit, Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Javanese, Thai, Bengali, Gujarati or any regional languages got evolved from common script (Referred as Brahmi) from those days.  Data displayed in this blog clearly proves that knowledge of scripts, human communication could have been arrived from same source of ideas which later evolved into specific country, state languages due to boundaries established in kingdoms those days. People movement got restricted due to boundaries and the regions started developing respective alphabets slowly in different form from the same Brahmi script source during course of time and same happened to spoken languages as well which got evolved due to dialects in those regions. Finally, we all are one and all of us came from same DNA. This is the truth.
References :
DNA reference ( R1a particularly) http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1a_Y-DNA.shtml
International DNA project. - http://www.r1a.org/2.htm 
Also reference to below Wikipedia will lead to several links and other reliable scientific projects related to this topic- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a
Vedas, Puranas and Upanishads:
Ancient Scripts and History

htttp://www.ancientscripts.com/brahmi.html

Disclaimer: I am a knowledge seeker and looking for more and more actual facts to support my blog on Final truth and lay a strong foundation of Universal Brotherhood. My entire blog is based on my interest and study based on Ancient Indian Philosophy, Ancient Scripts and R1a DNA evolution. Incase if something mentioned in my blog is wrong or incorrect, please help to correct me with actual scientific proofs or actual archaeological evidences or validated literature books or evidences that you find in museums, internet etc. with carbon dating and I can update them accordingly in my blog. Again, I am not fluent in English and my mother tongue is Konkani and I am very fluent in only Kannada language and have written this blog with utmost care. If there are some English grammatical errors, I sincerely apologize and request to please correct me by sending email and do not take something from this blog and have your own meaning yourself without properly understanding Spirituality and Literature. I have collected all these data from reliable sources with links provided and to support the cause of Universal brotherhood, I have spent my personal money to travel to different countries in world and even to most remote islands in Indonesia and have done home stay with communities there for understanding belief systems and spiritual ideas what they follow and actual meaning of it. Most of data and pictures are from Internet, encyclopedia, school books, museums etc.. Please do not debate each other belief system and I am strictly against it. We are in democratic India that supports freedom of religion or freedom of belief guaranteed by Article 25-28 of the Constitution and this should be respected. To prevent abuses and debates on other belief system, I have removed the permission to anonymous comments and people can message only to my email ID. with actual facts that can support me to update my blog. Thank you.