Wednesday, August 30, 2017

A blog about ancient mythologies and tracing the roots of its origin using DNA science

By Arvind Bhagwath

Introduction:

To introduce myself, I am Arvind Bhagwath and belong to Hindu community residing in India. My main interests are science, truth behind life(energy and forces that actually created life) and with technical background of being Electronics engineer by profession, I am author for scientific articles related to creation of life, forces that make them act and also have written few blogs on origin of life in several sitesIn simple English and for everyone to understand, I have created blog on how chromosomes came into existence and basically how life got created on this earth  - http://arvindbhagwath.blogspot.in/2009/. Based on this blog, I had few interesting debates. However while I was interacting with various people and discussing about science and human civilization, many times I was deeply saddened when people from different faith, caste or belief system fight against each other for all silly reasons in name of languages, caste, culture etc. considering one as superior than other. This made me to think and help these people by providing some of actual truth findings that was achieved by modern science to support and promote universal brotherhood. This was the actual main reason to write this blog.
To support my findings and understanding the actual truth behind civilization, mythology, culture and languages spoken across globe, I have personally read all Vedas, Puranas, belief systems across the world and also have traveled across each part of our country (India) and followed by travelling to several countries across the globe that includes Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Thailand, Middle east, Americas etc. and have done extensive research based on findings from International DNA projects, archaeology departments across the world and inputs from several communities, scientific facts that were available in Internet with valid data and proof. If something that has convinced me, I am sure this will convince many others who might have similar questions that I had and I will guarantee that nothing in my blog will be based on theories, but only 100% fact findings. Below are few very curious questions that I am trying to answer with facts.


To start, we first need understand the mother of all culture and mythologies along with major schools of thoughts that took birth from Hindu Dharma (oldest surviving religion/way of life with one of most ancient culture on planet earth). Few of basic questions are as below.

1. What are Vedas and what does it preach? What are different schools of thoughts of Indian Philosophy?
2. What is Hinduism? Which script was used to write Vedas? Who was the founder?
3. What is the main reason for having so many deities in Hindu belief system even if basic philosophy believes in single source of truth? From where did all these idol worship start and so many deities got included in belief system?
4. Why do Hindus break coconut in all ceremonies or pujas while praying deities? Which sage brought the reform from animal sacrifice to practice of breaking coconut that is non-violent way? Same way, how did death rituals that Hindus follow as of today got reformed?
5. What makes Sanatana Dharma(referred as Hinduism currently) so tolerant towards all faith and even till today accepts every belief system across the world in its own? Who brought all these regular reforms in Dharma?
6. Finally, which is the source for written scripts that we use as of now?

India is a place where you will still find surviving ancient religion and oldest cultures of the world. Hindu religious scriptures date back up to 10,000 years and as a known fact, India has never invaded any country in its past 10,000 years of history and the people associated with ancient civilizations across the world who came here along with their cultural past due to persecution or ill-treatment in there native were adapted and protected here in this great land just because of "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam", the entire world is a family is what our philosophy teaches if you are a Hindu. "Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah", may all living beings live happily, in peace, may good happen to all, may all prosper and live their lives to their fullest potential is what we still follow. We have digested several cultures that came to India from all over world and our sages modified and created regular reforms in our culture to keep everyone happy and the list of current Hindu deities that we pray in India can be more than population of few villages :-). Our temple gopuras are almost like skyscraper to support every belief system that were followed by diverse culture which got integrated here in this great land(India). Kings were guided by sages for regular reforms to keep people united. Marriages were made within deities they prayed and mythological stories or tales got altered so that people understand that all deities belong to same family :-) and stay united. This is definitely not the case in west and we have clear history in which we see people getting persecuted in name of one GOD and belief. When Jews were persecuted in name of race all over world and when Jews came as exiles from Israel in the year 70 CE after the destruction of the Second Temple, it was India that gave them land and protected their rich culture. Israel still loves India and its people for this support that we provided to Jew community in past. Similarly, Parsis(Persians), who fled their native land in 9th century AD to escape religious persecution, arrived as refugees from Arab land ( Iran) and were welcomed by India and it is this community that has immense contribution in development of modern India.The Parsi religion is popularly called Zoroastrian after the Greek version of the name of the prophet Zarathushtra. People here in India still have freedom to pray any deities and follow any practice.
Our great Sages were so tolerant that they supported reforms regularly with idea of inclusiveness of several cultures that came to India in times and at same time developed study of Vedic knowledge that are supported by science and truth. Our culture is not superstitious as claimed in west, the superstitious rituals of animal scarifies that came here were reformed in most non-violent way and also at same time allowed the people to continue their respective practices or belief which they belonged earlier.

Below are six major schools of thoughts in Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta. ( Each one is better than other in path of self Realization and all these emerged by debating merits and demerits of each school of thoughts in most non-violent way by Vedic Scholars) 
1. Samkhya. This is an oldest and strongly dualism theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter. Samkhya School espouses dualism between consciousness and matter. It regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Purusha (Consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Samkhya philosophy includes a theory of gunas (qualities, innate tendencies, psyche). Guna, it states, are of three types: Sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; Rajas guna is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and Tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya scholars, have these three gunas, but in different proportions. The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life.

2. Yoga, this comprises the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Many types of Yoga, such as raja yoga, jnana yoga, karma yoga, bhakti yoga, tantra yoga, mantra yoga, laya yoga, and hatha yoga and closely related to Samkhya school of thoughts emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation. The Yoga school builds on the Samkhya school theory that jnana (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha (Liberation to Universal Spirit)


3. Nyaya or logic, which explores sources of knowledge using Nyaya Sutras. It holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge (notions and ignorance and Moksha (liberation), it states, is gained through right knowledge. The six means of knowledge are:
•Pratyaksha: Knowledge thru Perception
•Anumana : Knowledge thru Inference
•Upamana : Knowledge by Comparison
•Sabda : Knowledge directly through Words
•Arthapatti : Knowledge thru postulation
•Anupalabhi : Knowledge based on absence
4. Vaiseika, an empiricist school of atomism. It postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to atoms and that one's experiences are derived from the interplay of substance (a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements), quality, activity, commonness, particularity and inherence. Knowledge and liberation are achievable by complete understanding of the world of experience. This philosophy is credited to Kasyapa during Vedic times.

I have done more research on this school of thought and can be found in my earlier blog : https://arvindbhagwath.blogspot.in/2009/

5. Mimamsa: Mimamsa deals with analysis of Vedic mantras. There are two branches of Mimamsa called Purva mimamsa and Uttara mimamsa. The Purva mimamsa analyses the Karma part of Vedas and the Uttara mimamsa for Jnana part.
6. Vedanta:  Vedanta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period. Vedanta again has several divisions and primary is Advaita and Dvaita.
Advaita literally means "not two, sole, unity". It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism. Its metaphysics is a form of absolute monism that is all ultimate reality is interconnected oneness. Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas, espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities.

What are Vedas and What does it Preach?

Ancient Vedic philosophy basically comprises of Vedas, Puranas and Upanishads. The Vedas are perhaps the oldest written text on our planet today. The Vedas are divided into four groups, Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda.
Sages those days where discussing questions like - What is life? Is there a creator? Who created Universe and how are we related to other living beings in this universe etc. These questions were answered by Self Realization and knowledge sharing amongst scholars those days. Let us discuss some brief details for these Vedas.
1. Rig Veda: Hymns in Prayer (Stotras) forms dedicated to Gods in tradition. It is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten books (Sanskrit: mandalas). The hymns are dedicated to Rigvedic deities. The books were composed by sages and poets from different priestly groups over a period. About two-thirds of Rigveda is about the gods Agni (Fire) and Indra (Ruler of the gods). Rigveda contains a sense of intimate communion between Nature and the Rishis or visionaries
2. Sama Veda: The Sama-Veda is the “Veda of chants” or “Knowledge of melodies”. Hymns in Music& Melody form. A collection of hymns used by the priests during the Soma sacrifice. Many of these duplicate in part or in whole hymns from the Rig Veda
3. Yajur Veda is the Veda of ritual. The ritual is to recreate the universe within our own psyche and thereby unite the individual with the universal
4. Atharva Veda: Hymns which were focused on avoid calamities and sufferings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedas

The Puranas
The Purana literature are in story form and voluminous in nature. There are 18 main puranas and most of the popular puranas were written by Vyasa. Puranas were the medium to teach the common man on values of life through an intelligent weaving of mythological stories. Some of the most popular puranas include Skanda purana, Agni Purana, Bhagavatha Purana , Vishnu Purana , Siva Purana and so on…..
The Upanishads:
The Upanishads are largely philosophical works in dialog form. They discuss question of nature philosophy and the fate of the soul, and contain some mystic and spiritual interpretations of the Vedas. The compiler of the Vedas and Puranas was Vyasa and referred as Veda Vyasa.

Birth of Hindu GODS :

Hiraṇyagarbha (Sanskrit: हिरण्यगर्भः ; literally the 'golden womb' or 'golden egg' is the source of the creation of universe or the manifested cosmos in Vedic philosophy.The Upanishad calls it the Soul of the Universe or BrahmanHiraṇyagarbha is the term used in the Vedanta for the "creator". Hiraṇyagarbha is also Brahmā and is known as Svayambhu (self-born). Brahma creates ten sons or Prajapatis, who are believed to be the fathers of the human race. A list of ten includes Marichi, Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishtha, Daksha, Bhrigu and Narada.
According to the Puranas, Daksha (Son of Brahma and a great king) had several daughters from his wife Prasuti and ViraniDaksha and his wife Virani had 62 daughters. 10 of those daughters were married to Dharma, 13 to sage Kashyapa (like Aditi, Diti etc), 27 to Chandra, 4 to Arishtanemi, 1 to Kama, 1 to lord Shiva, 2 to sons of sage Bhrigu, 2 to sage Angiras, 2 to Krisasva.
According to Vishnu Purana and Padma Purana, Daksha and his wife Prasuti had 24 daughters. The names of these 24 daughters are :Sradda,Srilakshmi(Prosperity), Dhriti (Steadiness), Thushti (Resignation),Pushti (Thriving), Medha (Intelligence), Kriya (Action,devotion), Buddhika (Intellect),Lajja (Modesty), Vapu(Body),Santi (Expiation), Siddhika (Perfection), Kirtti (Fame), Khyati (Celebrity), Sati (Truth), Sambhuti (Fitness),Smriti (Memory),Priti (Affection),Kshama(Forgiveness),Sannati (Humility),Anasuya,Urjja (Energy),Swaha (Offering),nd Swadha (Oblation).Rigvedic verse "Daksha sprang from Aditi and Aditi from Daksha" is a reference to "the eternal cyclic re-birth of the same divine Essence". Aditi was attributed the status of first deity by the Vedic culture and she gave birth to Daksha and in re-birth, she is again daughter of Daksha married to Sage Kashyappa.

Aditi (Daughter of King Daksha) with sage Kashyapa(Son of Marichi) had 33 sons who are referred as Devas. Twelve are called Aditya including Surya that form 12 months of Hindu calendar, eleven are called Rudras and eight are called Vasus. Aditi (Sanskrit: अदिति "limitless") is mother of the gods (devamata) and all twelve zodiacal spirits from whose cosmic matrix, the heavenly bodies were born.She may be seen as a feminized form of Brahma and associated with the primal substance (mulaprakriti) in Vedanta. She is mentioned nearly 80 times in the Rigveda.

Diti (Daughter of King Daksha) with the sage Kashyapa gave birth to the Daityas (Sanskrit: दैत्य). These are a clan or race of Asura as are the Danavas. Below are notable Daityas or race of Asuras.
Above image of  half-man/half-animal of Vishnu Avatar killing Hiranyakashipu(eldest son of Diti).More information of Avatars can be found @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashavatara
Jyotiṣa is part of Vedas that are primarily used to support Vedic rituals in Hindu tradition and above image is statue of Rahu in Thailand temples. Rahu swallows the sun causing eclipses. Rahu is one of the navagraha (nine planets) in Vedic astrology and is paired with Ketu. The time of day considered to be under the influence of Rahu is called Rahu kala and is considered inauspicious. 
Navagrahas(9 grahas) of Hindu astrology @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navagraha

Vedic Astrology is primarily 27 Nakshatras of a month. The following list gives the corresponding regions of sky that forms 12 Zodiac signs @https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nakshatras
Hindu Calendar : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_calendar

Spread of Hindu Culture across Indian sub-continent:

This Hindu culture and school of thoughts (referred as Sanatana Dharma) at one point was all over India and South East Asia. You can still see the remains of this rich culture in the Hindu temples of Angkor Wat, Bali and Thailand.
Sages were main reason to spread this culture and wherever these sages have travelled, the culture has spread. It starts from Agastya, Adi Shankaracharya so on.
Later scholars like Adi Shankaracharya helped to unite various school of thoughts under one single foundation of Sanatana Dharma (currently referred as Hinduism). Adi Shankara travelled across the Indian Subcontinent to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. The united Indian culture what we see today was due to Adi Shankara’s contribution those days.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara

Most people say that it was Adi Shankaracharya who brought major reforms in Hindu philosophy while debating merits and demerits of Vedas with other thinkers and during this time, he abolished animal sacrifices and introduced Coconut breaking as an option to animal sacrifice. Even till this day Coconut is called “ Khopda” in North India and hence requested all Brahmans to officially be vegetarian and the sacrifice must be that of breaking coconut. This is the actual fact and later Hindu rituals mentioned the importance of breaking a coconut. Adi Shankaracharya has brought several such reforms. You can observe that in Hindus, we offer rice to crows during death rituals as Pinda. This is not the case in ancient central Asian people that followed similar like Hinduism and pray similar deities that we pray in Hindu belief system. Ancient central Asian people that got migrated to India as Parsi community still offers human to crow as rituals and still practiced in Mumbai around Hanging Gardens. I have covered in-depth data in Section 2 on cultural similarities below.

To support this fact, I traveled to Bali island ( Indonesia) in 2009. This island has almost 96% of Hindu population which arrived before Adi Shankaracharya . I did home stay with few communities in Bali and then did detail study on Hindu practices in this island. Fact is, Hindus in Bali do animal sacrifices, offer non-vegetarian food like Pork, Chicken to deities like Vishnu, Brahma, Ganesha etc and this make them little different from non-violent methods that we follow here in India. Even in India, some tribes still do animal sacrifices and also you can find animal sacrifices in Nepal which got banned recently.

What is Hinduism? Which script was used to write Vedas? Who was the founder?

Hindu religion does not claim any one prophet; it does not worship any one god; it does not subscribe to any one dogma; it does not believe in any one philosophic concept; it does not follow any one set of religious rites or performances and it may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more.

 Hindu could:
1. Follow any of the Hindu schools of philosophy, such as Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita (non-dualism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism with non-dualism)
2. Follow a tradition centred on any particular form of the Divine, such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism
3. Practice any one of the various forms of yoga systems in order to achieve moksha – that is freedom in current life (jivanmukti) or salvation in after-life (videhamukti)
4. Practice bhakti or puja for spiritual reasons, which may be directed to one's guru or to a divine image.A visible public form of this practice is worship before an idol or statue.

Origin of Sanatana Philosophy(Hindu Philosophy) can be regarded as completely reformed as of today with changes and reforms brought by several scholars from past till date. However, when we speak of culture in Hindu, it is mix of several traditions and the practice of rituals, Idol worship etc are almost 6000 years old. Rituals have been followed from several generations that got included with several waves of people migration here into Hindu culture. It is this great culture that has digested any kind of cultural invasion and regarded them as its own. It accepted everything and rejected none. Most of Idol worship got started in Eurasia, some from Central Asia and few got included later in India, however people consider everyone as their own deity. This is power of Hindu culture. However, few of western research and theories which I got chance to read in Internet seems to be propagating about Aryan "invasion" around 1700BC in Indian sub-continent and mentioning Aryans came from outside which appears to be incorrect and this theory leads to unnecessary racial differences in our country. We have already seen two world wars in name of Aryan race by Hitler, where he failed to understand the meaning of "Arya" itself as given in Vedas. "Arya" refers as Noble and their is no racial word attached to it and unfortunately our politicians are still en-cashing this theory for vote bank and dividing this country based on theories given by East India company(British Rule). Anyways, our Indian culture is several times strong enough to handle all these theories and thanks to all reforms done by great Vedic sages in times. However my one kind request to research teams is that, instead of mentioning "invasion", we should refer that we all humans come from civilization/ideas sharing similar DNA which got evolved periodically and this civilization supported to have a similar belief system across the world that we all follow as of today. I do agree that migrations happen and do agree R1a DNA concept based on study of Y chromosomes that I have done from several years, however migrations happen not only because of only invasions, but due to various factors like climatic conditions and our ancient Hindu Saraswat community is best living example in India to prove this theory wrong who know the actual reason for migration that I have covered in detail below. India has a very beautiful heritage and its ancient past should be respected. It is only in India and few countries in Indian sub-continent, people across the world still get chance to see their respective ancestral past or heritage that is still nurtured and protected even after several invasions from invaders. 
Coconut breaking ritual in Hindu belief system instead of animal sacrifices is one best example for reform that our sages brought and there are several reforms like these. You can refer (Vedic school of thoughts) mentioned above in this blog and see the level of knowledge that our sages had in past on science of self realization and atomic theories that even modern science cannot challenge. The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India and our current Indian constitution also preaches and adapts same tolerance("Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam") in accepting all belief system.

Let us start actual fact findings from Human Y DNA on how people of different culture arrived here in ancient India: 

IMPORTANT NOTE : I am not interested to debate who came from where, since series of people migrations have taken place from North to South, west to east and now we have established ourselves in boundary as country, state etc. Migrations have started even during ICE AGE and also after the end of last ICE age. Migrations have happened in multiple waves to make our Indian Culture very diverseYou can refer my conclusion and importance of India that has helped to protect world culture below and the reason why India is secular. "Hinduism" itself is "Secular". Since this topic is very huge, I will limit my interest only with R1a DNA and locating genetic ancestors, since it looks that most our ancient Hindu mythologies are associated with this Haplogroup R1a.
As you are aware, R-M207 - Haplogroup R* Y-DNA (xR1,R2) was found in 24,000-year-old remains from Mal'ta in Siberia near Lake Baikal and its branched R1 is R-M173, also known as R1, has been common throughout Europe and South Asia since pre-history and R2 (R-M479) lineage is found predominantly in South Asia and I am particularly looking at Haplogroup R1a which is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup that is currently distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia, Central Europe, southern Siberia to South Asia. Finally in my entire blog, I just want to prove that we all are from same DNA and complete blog is basis of below scientific fact to support universal brotherhood.

Below is the R1a spread


Few years back, I got a chance to read few mythological stories of various communities that live around Eastern European countries, Russia etc something like this @ https://www.slavorum.org/5-most-popular-tales-from-slavic-mythology/ and these stories appear in several books, internet sites and possibly you could have seen them in many Hollywood movies. For me, it looked almost similar to mythological stories that we learn from our childhood here in India on Kamadhenu, Stories of Sage Vishwamitra, Stories of seven sages. You can locate similar stories in several mythologies followed world wide from ancient days and in most cases rituals are still followed with little modifications that is suited with new faith https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mythologies
Deities also look very similar - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_deities
Comparative mythology is done by scholars and have used the relationships between different myths to trace the development of religions and cultures, to propose common origins for myths from different cultures, and to support various psychological theories - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_mythology

Doing deep dive in study of World wide mythological stories/epics of early Sumerians, Assyrians, Persians, Romans, Greeks,Slavic mythology near eastern Europe with Indian mythology, it looks almost same. There is considerable interest in study of ancient flood in most of research universities by scientists. There are high evidences that this flood could have happened during those days near Black Sea and shocking is, this tale appears in almost all the belief system that we know with maximum similarities. There is a great flood in the epic of Gilgamesh of Sumerians and we find similar tale of Matsya-avatar(Matsya Puranas) in Hindu belief system that happened almost same time during creation of these epics, Greeks have similar story about the Great Flood referring Zeus and to finally add, tale about great flood is also present in Bible and Quran as Noah and his ark.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah%27s_Ark

Flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in most of belief system in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_flood_myths

The earliest idea of "egg-shaped cosmos" for creation of universe comes from Hindu Vedic scriptures and almost adapted in every belief system or mythologies as of today
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_egg

As per Sanatana Dharama belief system(Hinduism), below is picture of first avatar of Lord Vishnu. Matsya(Lord Vishnu) is described to have rescued the first man, Manu from a great deluge. Manu accompanied by the seven Vedic sages survives by boarding the ark, which Matsya pulls to safety.

Refer tales and epics like Epic of Gilgamesh(Mesopotamians) along with Puranas in Hindu mythology . It is almost similar.

Even Slavic Mythology is almost same like what we have in Hindu mythology.
https://www.slavorum.org/5-most-popular-tales-from-slavic-mythology/

Below are ancient artifacts depicting greatest Mesopotamians epic ( Epic of Gilgamesh and with carbon dating, this could be around 2000BC-3000BC collected by archaeologists). Gilgamesh fighting with Bull of heaven and Humbaba ( Man-Lion kind of creature) and we find similar tales in Hindu mythology.

Sumerians also speak of seven divine sages(known as apkallu) guiding humanity like Saptarishi in Hindu belief system. The similar version of seven sages appears in Greece mythology and also in earlier Chinese mythology.
Sumerians during 3000BC has almost all similar GOD's that we have in Hindu belief system like Agni, Vayu, Surya, Kali, Yama etc. You can easily locate similarities in almost all mythologies like Greeks, Roman, Persians etc .

Get a complete list of all mythologies @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mythologies and get comparison @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_mythology. You can easily achieve something like below chart and it is almost same on roles of GOD's those days and in most cases, names appear almost similar.
Hindu MythologySumerian Mythology
INDRA(King of Gods)ASSHUR(King of Gods)
INDRANINAMMU
AGNI(God of Fire)URKI/ENKI (God of Fire)
YAMA(God of Death)NAMTAR(God of Death)
Vayu(God of Air)Enlil(God of Air)


Other good example is Dyaus Pita ( Sky God of Hindu mythology)
  • The father of Indra is Dyaus Pita in Hindu Mythology
  • Dyaus Pita is worshiped as Zeus Pita in Greek Mythology later.
  • Deus-Pater or Ju-Piter in Roman Mythology
  • Slavs worship same god as Div
  • Norse Mythology as Ziu or Tyr. 
Storm-gods known as Maruts of Hindu Mythology are Mars in Roman Mythology

Mithra of Hindu mythology is Mithra of Roman Mythology which is basis of Mithraism of Romans that was practiced before Christianity. Mithra is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing Protector of Truth is also referred by ancient Persians.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithra

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithraism

Just take Yama as example whom we pray in Hindu Mythology. Sumerians referred Yama as Namtar. A parallel character in Iranian mythology and Zoroastrianism is known as Yima. In Chineese mythology, he is called as Yan. Japan, he is called Enma. In Korea, Yan is known as Yeomna. There is Yamna culture itself referring same GOD and this could initial GOD people prayed in Eastern Europe and culture evolved.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamna_culture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deities_of_Slavic_religion

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svarog  (Svarog is also heaven in Sanskrit)

Slavs still follow most of Hindu kind of culture in Russia, Romania etc. You can locate them in below link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_Native_Faith

Coming to central Asia (Persian Land like Iran, Syria etc), the Hurrian-speaking Mitanni people and the king of Mitanni refer series of Hurrian gods like Mitrašil, Uruvanaššil, Indara, and Našatianna, who correspond to the Vedic gods Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Asvin).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassite_deities

There are lot of familiar names in Avesta from the Rig-Veda. There were similarities in rituals too. In India, Brahmins do Upanayana and this is a ritual by which a boy becomes a full member of his class. Zoroastrians have a similar ceremony called Navjot which is still practiced by Parsis.

Famous Rigveda's ritual practice 'soma' is referred by persians as 'haoma'. This is because 'S' is converted to 'H' in Persia (Example: Sindhu to Hindu).This ritual is still performed all over India when we move into new house. This is called as 'House warming ceremony' and also practiced in few cases to remove evil spirits.

Coming to Deities or Kings who ruled during those early dynastic time.

To add, in our current Hindu society in India, we use the term gotra means clan. It broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor or patriline. According to the Upanishads written those days, Gautama, Bharadvaja, Visvamitra, Jamadagni, Vashishtha, Kashyapa and Shandilya are seven Vedic civilization sages (also known as Saptarishi) and to this list, Agastya is also sometimes added. The progeny of these sages is declared to be gotras. The gotra system is followed even in modern India. Marriages within the gotra ('sagotra' marriages) are not permitted under the rule of monogamy in the traditional matrimonial system. People within the gotra are regarded as siblings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_gotras

As mentioned above, I am trying to locate the families of these sages, culture associated from them on all locations of R1a DNA spread using below similarities and see how Hinduism evolved in times.

Locating similarities in culture and languages spoken/written based on R1a DNA spread

Most of our Hindu mythologies are facts that has happened at locations near by as they are captured in Vedas and Puranas with places mentioned, however due to story telling from almost 10000 years from generations to generations with several communication gaps etc and to add human imagination, it has made us to think and believe very differently.

I go by what our famous Indian politician Bal Gangadhar Tilak  and this theory on Arctic theory of the origin of Vedic Sages” . He mentioned that the ancestral home of Vedic Sages were near northern Eurasia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Arctic_Home_in_the_Vedas




In 1903, he wrote the book "The Arctic Home in the Vedas". In it, he argued that the Vedas could only have been composed in the Arctics, and the Vedic sages brought them south after the onset of the last ice age. He proposed a new way to determine the exact time of the Vedas. According to his theory, he mentions that Arctic regions were warm and favorable for human living. When climate changed unfavorably there, Vedic sages migrated towards south and then finally to India. I am here just to prove his theory due to technologies available like Google Maps.

To support Tilak's theory and using google maps, we can now easily locate all these Vedic towns and interesting fact is that, most of ancient mythological stories that could be pre-vedic era or experimental Vedic era around Rig-Vedic times that have similar deities with almost same names like Hindu mythologies appears to be in and around Ural Mountains - Mount_NarodnayaAltai Mountains, Arkaim, Ural river, Caspian sea, Black sea ( Eastern Europe, Norther and Southern Russia and Western Tajikistan, Northern Afghanistan). I have covered in-depth details on similarities below.

Let us start the journey :-) :-) and to mention about my background, I belong to Kaunsha Gotra of Rigvedic Sage Vishvamitra. Vishwamitra was a descendant of Kaushika and hence Kaunsha Gotra. As captured in our Vedas, Puranas, Mahabharata, Vishvamitra is located from Kamboja who were famous in ancient times for their excellent breed of horses and as remarkable horsemen located in the Uttarapatha or north-west. Their territories were located beyond Gandhara, beyond Pakistan, Afghanistan laying in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_towns_and_villages_in_Tajikistan ( Most of towns have Sanskrit Origin and find references of same town names in our Vedas, Puranas)  and similarly check this https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_in_Uzbekistan and 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bukhara ( Referred as 'Vihara' earlier) and also refer Russian towns : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_and_towns_in_Russia


Striking similarities with Hindu Mythology - Sites of Tara(Parvati) in Ireland, Baalbek temples in Lebanon, Yama culture of Russia, Daksha, Swastika experiments that Vedic sages performed around Narada mountains(Ural- Russia), Arkaim etc

Origin of fasting ritual, linga idol worship and start of celebrating festival of Lights : 

To find the origin of fasting rituals, we need to deep dive Hindu mythology and look for origin of belief system or start of Shiva Linga(Idol) praying, rituals of offering food to deities and in some cases of animal sacrifices for deities in Shaktism. Doing deep dive on study of Puranas, it is clearly believed that these rituals have started after sacrifice of Sati's life in fire. The mythology of Daksha Yaga and Sati's self immolation had immense significance in shaping the ancient Hindu mythology and belief system and even had impact on the culture of India. It led to the development of the concept of Shakti Peethas and there by strengthening Shaktism. Enormous mythological stories in puranas took the Daksha yaga as the reason for its origin.

It looks like ritual of fasting, animal sacrifice started only after this incident in which people remember Sati's sacrifice, fast for 40 days during Feb-March, pray for lord to return back to earth and then incarnation of Lord is born after 9 months who fights against daemons or enemies of kingdom. Festival of lights celebrated during November- December when GOD is re-incarnated.Fasting/mourning period is observed in many cultures and religions across the world as of today. Almost all faiths have some or the other rituals that say 40 day fasting and mostly related to attainment of spiritual knowledge or re-incarnation of GOD.

======February- March Rituals==========
It is this day on the new moon in February, Sati won Shiva as her husband by undergoing severe austerities. Despite Daksha's disappointment, Sati married Shiva finally.Their union is celebrated on the new moon in February which is called Mahashivratri, the great wedding night of Lord Shiva and the Divine Mother. Coincidentally, the great romantic holiday of the west, is also celebrated in February and most of times it falls on same day.
Sati's father (Daksha- Lord Brahma's son) grudge towards Shiva grew and was waiting an opportunity for insulting Shiva and organized a Daksha yagna. Shiva did not participate in this Yagna, however Sati did and as planned, he took advantage of the situation and continued shouting repugnant words against Shiva. Sati felt deep remorse for not listening to her beloved husband and unable to bear further humiliation, Sati committed suicide by jumping into the sacrificial fire.Shiva was deeply pained upon hearing of his wife's death, Shiva ordered Kali to kill Daksha and destroy the yajna which they did accordingly. Shiva was so distressed and could not part from his beloved wife. He took the corpse of Sati and wandered around the world. To reduce Shiva's grief, Vishnu cuts Sati's corpse as per Vaishnava Puranas; whose parts fell on the places Shiva wandered. These places are origin of Shakti Peethas. Shiva went to isolation and solitude for ages.Several of these holy Shakti Peethas have now become major places of pilgrimage, pulling in scores of devotees all the year through. These centers are considered particularly sacred by the Shaktas (sects who consider Goddess Sakthi as the Supreme Godhead). 

People remember this day as MahaShivaratri every year and pray for Shiva in form of Lingam. As per Puranas, it is again same day when Parvati (Sati's next life) got married to Shiva by undergoing severe austerities and fasting. Maha Shivaratri means “great night of Shiva,” and is celebrated the 13th night and 14th day of the new moon and this falls normally during March every year. For this remembrance of the night, devotees remain awake, visit Shiva temples. Throughout the next day, these devotees fast, and chant the sacred Panchakshara mantra, “Om Namah Shivaya,” which translates to “salutations to Shiva,” and toss offerings of grain into the fire. Those who fast and pray on the day of Mahashivratri are said to be blessed with the grace of the Lord.The Shivaratri that falls during the Shravana month is known as Sawan Shivaratri while the Shivaratri that falls in the month of February or March which corresponds to the Phalguna month is called the Mahashivratri. Mahashivratri and the Sawan Shivratri are considered to be the most significant festivals for those who follow Lord Shiva.The entire Shravana month is dedicated to Lord Shiva. 

Thaipusam or Thaipoosam is a festival celebrated by the Tamil community on the full moon in the Tamil month of Thai (January/February). 
The Kavadi Attam ("Burden Dance", also written as cavadee) is the ceremonial sacrifice and offering performed by devotees during the worship of Murugan, the Hindu God of War.It is often performed during the festival of Thaipusam and emphasises debt bondage. The Kavadi itself is a physical burden through which the devotees implore for help from the God Murugan.We can see striking similarities of this kind of fasting in all faiths related to attainment of spiritual knowledge or praying for incarnation of GOD.


Below are fasting rules in Hinduism and has striking similarities with other major faiths/religions:
  • Believers and followers of Hinduism, observe fifth month of the solar year as ‘Sharvan’, a holy month dedicated to spiritual practices and religious offerings to Lord Shiva.
  • Early morning worship
  • Feeding poor during Shravan Month
  • This is the month, in which Lord Shiva grants boon to devotees, who repent for their mistakes and ask for success, evade negative energy, bad luck, etc. 
  • Refrain from eating non-vegetarian food during the Shravan month and avoid consumption of alcohol
=====November - December Rituals(After 9 months)===========(FESTIVAL OF LIGHTS)======

FESTIVAL OF LIGHTS (Re-Incarnation of GOD) : 
More details can be found at below URL : 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Festival_of_Lights

Celebration of Kartika Deepam - Many legends and lyrical poetry have grown around this festival. Kartikeya is also known as Murugan, Skanda, Kumara and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war. He is the son of Parvati and Shiva. He is typically represented as an ever-youthful man, riding or near a peacock, dressed with weapons sometimes near a rooster.He is dressed as a warrior, carrying the weapon called Vel. It is a divine spear, often called sakti. Kartikeya is revered during the Kartik Puja festival, observed in November or December in eastern states of India. In Telugu households, Kaartheeka maasam (month) is considered very auspicious. The Kartheeka month starts on the day of Deepawali. From that day till the end of the month, oil lamps are lit every day. On Kartheeka Pournami (full moon of Kartheeka month) oil lamp with 365 wicks, prepared at home, are lit in Lord Shiva temples.

If you deep dive other mythologies around the world, we can see similarity of divine mother Parvati's son - Kartikeya as mentioned above with peacock and weapon like Vel in many belief system as of today like Romans, Greeks, Sumerians etc. Kartikeya was created by Parvati(Divine Mother) who was virgin and we see several GODs in almost all faiths/religions that have almost similar stories on birth of child to virgin mother who is re-incarnated as GOD. At same time, shockingly  we see celebrations of birthday of Egyptian GOD Horus, Osiris, Zoroaster, Mithra of Persia, Poseidon of Greek god , Roman gods of ancient mythology falls on same day or time during December and almost all of these GODS have Trishul as weapon. Below image is one such similarity with Greek GOD Poseidon
Further, we can see striking similarities of this kind of festival of lights in all faiths related to  re-incarnation of GOD every year during November - December based on different calendars followed(Lunar/Solar or alternate calendar followed by different religious institutions).
Get a complete list of all mythologies @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mythologies and get comparison with method used @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_mythology. You can easily locate the similarities in mythologies across the world. It is all same :-)

Calculation hypothesis is arrived based on this kind rituals appearing in almost all faiths that we know as of today.

The Calculation hypothesis suggests that an earlier ritual held on March became associated with the Incarnation of these GODs. Modern scholars refer to this feast as the Quartodecimal. Re-birth rituals was then calculated as nine months later. The Calculation hypothesis was proposed by French writer Louis Duchesne in 1889. The Calculation hypothesis is considered academically to be "a thoroughly viable hypothesis", though not certain. Locating from where this belief system started is challenge, but since world over mythologies are similar, there is definite source of truth of incident(Sati's sacrifice for Shiva) happening long back during those ancient days and people remember this incident every year in form of rituals like Divine marriage during February and festival of lights during November- December time when lord is re-incarnated to kill daemons or enemies of kingdom those days. Let us try to locate few carved lingam from ancient period across the world.

5500 years old - Carved Lingam in Tara Hill of Ireland - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hill_of_Tara

The Stone of Destiny looks similar to Shiva Lingam that is prayed all over India as of today and this lingam is stone age remains and is estimated to be 5500 years old.  Irish used to worship Tara Goddess in ancient days. Shockingly, Tara is other name of Parvati in Hinduism.
  • Hinduism : Tara is referred as Parvati. She is also sea goddess Meenakshi in South India ( Meen means Fish)
  • South America: People call her goddess, Tarahumara.
  • Finland: An ancient legend speaks of Tar, the Women of Wisdom.
  • Buddhism : Tara is tantric deity in Tibetan Buddhism
  • Polynesian Mythology: Tara is a Sea goddess similar like Parvati/Meenakshi 
  • Latin: Terra is Mother Earth
  • Druids: They called her mother goddess Tara.
  • Native American:  Call her Goddess who fell from the heavens to the Earth. 
Similarly take Temple of Petra in Jordan as example. Many have put forth the view that the Temple of Petra is a Temple of Shiva owing to the carved Shiva Linga in the mountain. There are several example of similar structures like these at Turoe - - http://www.irishmegaliths.org.uk/zTuroe.htm (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turoe_Stone)  and also Vietnam - https://www.indiadivine.org/ancient-shiva-lingas-found-throughout-vietnam/

Image above is Linga like carving from Petra(Jordan) and below is Linga prayed in South East Asian countries(Cambodian temples) and has similarities with Linga of Indian Temples - Gudimmallam . People should also understand the importance of spirituality and also actual meaning of Linga and symbols used by respective followers of Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma. Entire universal existence/creation of life is balanced with these three forces of nature.







Like Lingam, other deities in Hinduism are also prayed in form of Saligram. Above is representation of Vishnu in Saligram Stone. These stones are typically in the form of spherical, black-colored Ammonoid fossils which have existed nearly a 100 million years before the first humans evolved.

Below is ancient Greek temple for Sun God in Lebanon. Dyaus/Zeus has Sanskrit orgin - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baalbek (Reference: Temple of Jupiter/Zeus-Pitar/Dyaus-Pitar - Sanskrit Origin) - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyaus_Pita
Reference : https://www.etymonline.com/word/jupiter

The Baalbek Temples of Lebanon has striking similarities of Hindu temples. Lotus is closely associated with Hindu spiritual traditions. Guru Puja Stone in Baalbek is concept of Hindu Gods (Lord Shiva).

Yama ( Death God)  - Location of Yamna culture in Russia during Bronze age(4000 BC) has striking similarities of Yama GOD in Hindu mythology.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamna_culture and their usage of Svarog(Heaven) by Slavs -  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svarog  ( Both of these are Vedic/Puranic GODS for Heaven and Yama - Death God). Same GOD appears in almost all mythologies around the world with same role as Death GOD.
  • YamaDev or Yamraj in Hindu and budhhist mythology
  • Yima in Zoroastrianism
  • Yan in chinese
  • Yanluowang in japanese
  • Ymir in Proto-Germanic
  • Hades in greek mythology
  • Yima in Persian mythology
  • Orisis in Egyptian
Daksha Stone map. There is also island named after Daksha

http://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-ancient-writings/controversial-dashka-stone-120-million-year-old-map-006589


Human settlements in the Ural Mountains that had Vedic Knowledge
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_human_settlement_in_the_Ural_Mountains

Arkaim could be dedicated to Surya Deva ( Swastica City) :
Early ancient people trying to do a Model of recreating Universe(swastika) as mentioned in Rig Veda in Arkaim  - Swasthik Rig Vedic Mandala city 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arkaim

Battle of Kursk near 'Kurskplace' near Yamoga river in Russia which is also known for world war by Hitler in name of Aryan race is almost similar to Kurushetra in India. In Russia, people believe that there was similar war happened about 3000 BC between UttaraKurus in Russia. 

Kuril Islands are a part of Russia’s Sakhalin region.Name Kuril originates from the islands’ original inhabitants word ‘kuru’, meaning ‘man’. In Hindu mythology, Kurus are ancestors of Kauravas and Pandavas, as depicted in our epic Mahabharata. Even in Sumer, ancient Sumer was called ‘Kur-gal’.  In Sumerian cosmology, Ekur was the most sacred place of ancient Sumer, the centre of the Earth and location where Heaven and Earth were united.  It was the abode of the Annanuki and the assembly of the gods in their Garden. This also appears in the Greek mythology as the story of the Mount Olympus and its celestial inhabitants.

The Saka was the term used in Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians dwelled on the Eurasian Steppe.  The Sakas were Indo-Europeans and is dated approximately the 4th century BC.  The archaeological evidences burial mound was situated in eastern Scythia.  It contained a skeleton, warrior’s equipment and various goods, including 4000 gold ornaments as well as a written text identified as Khotanese Saka dialect similar to Sanskrit.The Sakas migrated into Central Asia and then to the northwest of the Indian subcontinent where they were known as the Indo-Scythians. Siddhartha Gautama is also referred Sakyamuni Buddha and he belonged to the Shakya clan of India that has been identified as Sakas.

Town Saki (named after the Saka) is an old settlement on the west of the Crimean peninsula, 45 km. from Simferopol.    

There is Anga place in Russia which people believe that it was related to Karna and you can easily locate them in Google

https://mapcarta.com/16401030

Similarly, you can locate all places mentioned in Mahabharata in Russia with similar name.

The highest point of the Ural Mountains(Russia) is the Mount Narodnaya also known as Naroda and Narada.  Its name is associated with Narada (Naroda) River at the foothills and the above mentioned sage Narada from early Hindu texts.

Mountains after Sage Narada - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Narodnaya

This place looks more like heaven as described in most of belief system based on towns mentioned and Golden Mountains https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altai_Mountains 

Kandalaksha is Russian town and port of Kandalaksha Gulf on the White Sea, north of the Arctic Circle. In Sansrkit Kandal is also referred as Milk and similarity of White Sea and the Ocean of milk of Hindu mythology.

Holi is the Hindu spring festival is similar with Russian festival Maslenitsa

NOTE : Sage Narada was messenger from Deva loka to Indra loka as per Hindu Mythology.

I am sure that excavations at Arkaim ( Swastica City) built by Vedic sages will answer this mystery and for the fact, all these are related to Vedic astronomy our sages used to experiment during RigVedic times and they are known doing this from almost 5000BCE era as Vedic experiments. In India, we get several completed structures like this and much more advanced like Jantar Mantar in  New Delhi and Jaipur(India)

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/older-stonehenge-arkaim-russia-00251

http://www.iflscience.com/environment/over-50-geoglyphs-discovered-kazakhstan/


Assura's Place:

Locations - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assur
Ashur was made a World Heritage site in 2003.

Below data from Rig Veda 1.35.10 describes Asura as kind leader.
हिरण्यहस्तो असुरः सुनीथः सुमृळीकः स्ववाँ यात्वर्वाङ् ।

अपसेधन्रक्षसो यातुधानानस्थाद्देवः प्रतिदोषं गृणानः ॥१०॥

It explains that gold-handed Asura, kind leader is coming ...pray deity(he), if worshipped in the evening, is at hand, driving away Rakshasas and Yatudhanas.

When it comes to usage of Assur or Assur kings as referred both in Hindu mythology or Sumerians mythology, actual place referring this name did exist and we have this place even now and also have complete history of Assur kings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baalbek . Below is one example from Palmyra (SYRIA/SURIYA)- http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/23


ASSUR KINGDOM Locations - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assur
Ashur was made a World Heritage site in 2003.

Reference : https://www.britannica.com/place/Ashur-ancient-city-Iraq

Reference : http://www.independent.co.uk/incoming/nine-of-syria-and-iraqs-10-world-heritage-sites-are-in-danger-as-isis-ravages-centuries-of-history-10481006.html

Asshur was the father of the Assyrians and the country was named after him. He was regarded as "the great god, king of all the gods." It was Asshur who gave power and life to every priestly king, and this was his symbol and we have similar reference in Hindu mythology. Asuras are described in Indian texts as powerful superhuman demigods or demons with good or bad qualities. The good Asuras are called Adityas and are led by Varuna, while the malevolent ones are called Danavas and are led by Vritra. In the earliest layer of Vedic texts Agni, Indra and other gods are also called Asuras, in the sense of them being "lords" of their respective domains, knowledge and abilities. In later Vedic and post-Vedic texts, the benevolent gods are called Devas, while malevolent Asuras compete against these Devas and are considered "enemy of the gods" or demons. 

Let us locate all vedic towns in Central Asia from below map:



Looking at above map, it is very clear that the names of the kings of the Mitanni state were of Indo-Aryan origin and a number of Indo-Aryan gods (Mitra, Varuna, Indra, Nasatya) are mentioned in the Mitanni texts, alongside the indigenous gods.The Hittite archives of Àattušašhave revealed the oldest known horse-training manual. Several Indo-Aryantechnical terms for horse training are mentioned in this manual: aikawartanna ‘one turn (of the course)’ (Sanskrit eka-vartana-), terawartanna ‘three turns’, panzawartanna ‘five turns’ (Sanskrit pañca-),sattawartanna ‘seven turns’ (Sanskrit sapta-), and nawartanna (for nawa-wartanna) ‘nine turns’ (Sanskrit nava). The first time historically the word Ratha is used as chariot is around 1650BCE with the Hurrians of the Middle East. These Hurrian's had hundreds of Vedic Sanskrit loan words. (Assuwa) is name of an Anatolian landscape in Hittite and Assyrian sources of the 15th century BCE.

From above map, the Surya and Asurya Split - which became the basis for countries being named Syria and Assyria. Arabs still call Syria as Surya. Below are few ancient temples of Syria that was later used by Romans, Greeks for respective SUN GODS or ROMAN or Greek deities. There are several such temples in Syria dedicated to SUN GOD. 
Hurrian/Surrian kings have sanskrit names  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurrians

Similarly looking for data on other Vedic sages, I was able to get Caspian sea named after Kasyappa.

Location of Caspian Sea in Russia : 
https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaspische_Zee

I happened to see some old Persian maps that was available in internet and see that Caspian see is named after our Vedic sage Kasyappa  ( Kaspische Zee)

According to Greek Historian, Caspian sea is derived from Kaspische Meer ( Meer in Sanksrit is Sea) and you see easily locate Strabo's ancient maps
Then I started doing few google maps search and started locating many of towns near Western Tajikistan, Afghanistan,Uzbekistan are closely named after Hindu Sages. Samarkand is best example that appears to be named after Hindu Sage Marakand.  Location of Samarkand from google maps:

https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Samarkand,+Uzbekistan/@39.5887664,66.1610701,9z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x3f4d191960077df7:0x487636d9d13f2f57!8m2!3d39.627012!4d66.9749731
Using Google maps and locating towns till Kaspische Zee ( Caspian sea), I could locate so many similarities of Hindu names used as we have read in our mythology. I happened to learn that people around Caspian sea till today use "vid" and "ved" are derived from the Sanskrit 'vid' which means 'Perceiving' and use Sanskrit word 'Dasvidanya' for Good Bye. I have covered more details in the blog below under cultural similarities section(2).

You could get several 100's of towns, rivers and mountains like Shurchi, Muhchak, Gowrudak, Surkhandarya province that has Sanskrit origin and associated with our Hindu mythology. 

Some say that Russia is derived from Sanskrit Russi ( Sage) and Moscow is derived from Moksha(Salvation). Some say that Russia is derived from Rasa river that is one of famous RigVedic River as captured in Vedas.
Some towns that end with "grad" comes from Gram ( Sanskrit). And some say that Soviet that came from Svet Svet is white in Sanskrit) and Bolshevik from Bal-Sevik(Learned Sages).
Hindu's current funeral rituals almost match the early experiments of Sintashta culture

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sintashta_culture


Archaeological evidences near Ural mountains:
https://www.pinterest.com/motyz/russia-ural-mountains/

Deities of Slavic Religion those days are almost like Deities of current Hindus. You can find 'ROD' and they refer him as 'Praboh' as Supreme GOD.  Still small people in Ural region do same practices of Homa around fire and you can easily locate this in internet. More details can be found in below URL:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_Native_Faith


As mentioned by B G Tilak, many scientists and archaeological experts now conclude that after end of last lce age around 11th century BCE, hunting community started settling down near river valleys, learnt farming and slowly smaller cultural group developed. You will find several 100's of Hinduism or Vedic kind of cultural experiments in and around Ural mountains that existed as early as 5000 BCE and is similar to currently existing Hindu culture and we pray same deities even today in our temples. Kurgan Hypothesis has very strong support of DNA science for migration proofs and at same time support this hypothesis of cultural movements that happened in times. Highest number of scientists and archaeological experts around the world currently agree this hypothesis.
Humans settled India in multiple waves of migrations. The first migrants came with the Southern Coastal dispersal, ca. 60,000 years ago, thereafter complex migrations within south and southeast Asia took place with people of Australoid Race. Then the migration of Mediterranean race, later Indo-European and finally Mongoloid Race(Tibeto-Burmese) speaking people in North eastern parts of India.

Unity in Diversity is India's strength. India is a land of “Unity in diversity”.“Unity in diversity” is based on the concept where the individual or social differences in physical attributes, skin color, castes, creed, cultural and religious practices, etc. are not looked upon as a conflict. Rather, these differences are looked upon as varieties that enrich the society and the nation as a whole.Unity in diversity is a very important principle because we all live in a diverse world and it is crucial to respect each other and to support each other no matter what our culture, background, gender, orientation or other differences may be.

Diverse Races enriched the Indian Ethnicity and Culture
In India, there are a large number of ancient culture prevailing or still practicing today. Though there are several numbers of diverse cultures in India, still it has unity in diversity.



When we talk only about R1a DNA, then it should be Vishvamitra and as per information that I have from our ancestors, Sage Vishwamitra and Sage Parushuram are credited to support migration of our community from Sarasvati river basin to Bengal ( Gaud Kingdom) and hence our Hindu community got referred as Gaud Saraswat Brahmin. Vedic SagesVishvamitra is credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including Gayatri Mantra. Vishwamitra was king earlier and had conflicts with Sage Vashista over sacred cow "Kamadhenu". During conflict with Sage Vashista, Vishvamitra realizes power of sages and understands that power obtained by penances was far greater than mere physical might. He renounced his kingdom and began his quest to become a greater rishi than Sage Vashista. Undergoing many austerities, Vishvamitra at last obtained the title of Brahmarishi from Vashista himself. In Rigvedic hymn 7.33.9, Vasistha is described as a scholar who moved across the Sindu river to establish his school in Uttarakand(Indian state) now. He was married to Arundhati, and therefore he was also called Arundhati Nath, meaning the husband of Arundhati. Vishvamitra had a daughter named Shakuntala. Son of Shakuntala became a great emperor. He came to be known as Emperor Bharata, in whose name the land of India got its name Bharata and now India.

There are several evidences of Kambojas of North West Afghanistan in current Bangladesh ( Kingdom of Gaudpati). There are still Kambojas in Afghanistan and Pakistan who follow Islam faith are referred as Kamboj
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahasthangarh

Below migration route from Kambhoja kingdom to eastern parts of India provides several evidences and this route was important trading and also people migration route during ancient days:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvaravati%E2%80%93Kamboja_route

With DNA study, it looks that most of Gaud Brahmins match R1a ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a )

Detailed references : http://www.eupedia.com/genetics/famous_y-dna_by_haplogroup.shtml

To get into details about Vedic sages migration, we need to locate rivers that have Sanskrit Origin as mentioned in RigVeda
As you see below, most of Russian rivers even today have Sanskrit equivalent
Current Russian River Name
Sanskrit Equivalent
English Meaning
Volga
Bul-ga
One that plunges, submerges & emerges
Pichora
Pichchora
Pipe/Flute
Dvina
Dwaina
Second
Vishera
Visara
Abundance
Varzuga
Varshauga
Torrent
Voronya
Varunya
Coming from god of water
Pregolya
Pragalya
That which falls off
Narva
Narba
To move
Kuma
Kuma
Lake
Tereshka
Taras
Energy
Kama
Kama
Wild
Samara
Samara
Battle
Kokshaga
Kokaha
White Horse
Moksha
Moksha
Salvation
Avacha
Avachya
Southern
Lokanka
Lu-Ganga
Dividing River

I could also locate most of rivers in Afghanistan that have Hindu names:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hari_(Afghanistan)


Buddhist monastery hand-carved in the bluff of the river Hereyrud existed in the first centuries during the prevalence of Buddhism. In Avesta, they refer this river as Horayu ( Sanskit : Sarayu)

Closest match to Rig Vedic Saraswati river is from Arachosia  location

We can locate few more Rig-Vedic rivers in Western Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and some in Pakistan.

Rig-Vedic river Kubha (Kabul) - Kabul is derived from Kubha 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabul_River

and some more like Krumu (in Kurrum) and Suvastu (in Swat)

Most important of all rivers is Amu Darya and was known as Oxus river and Greek meaning of Oxus is Sharp/SightDarya is Persian for "sea". Oxus allowed large-scale irrigation systems which was the main reason of its area's rich history. Persians refer this also as də Āmu Sind.

Reference for Greek meaning for Oxus : https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Oxus 

Details about Amu Darya and History:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amu_Darya

Vakhsh in its eastern parts(Vak means Speech in Sanksrit)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vakhsh_River

Sapta-Sindhu meaning 7 rivers is the term which gave birth to the word “Hindu”. Sapta-Sindhu was referred to as Hapta-Hindu by Persians etc. The people of this region and culture, the Sapta-Saindhavas were referred to as hapta-Haindavas by Persians etc. . The term is found in Avesta of Zoroastrians.

Just for my curiosity, I tried changing 'S' to 'H' like Sindhu to Hindu and was able to locate similar Goddess like Saraswati. Persians referred as Harahvati

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anahita

These two rivers (Vakhsh and Amu-Darya) flows for a length of 2400 km across modern Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan into Lake Aral. There are evidences that earlier, it used to meet Caspian sea(Kaspische Zee) and the river course got changed possibly due to earth quakes.



Based on ancient town names that has Sanskrit origin referring Rig Vedic sages and the location they belonged as captured in our Puranas, Vedas and also the way Rig-Veda has mentioned the flow of rivers, river names associated and evidences of large-scale irrigation systems and ancient history, many Western historians mention that there is very high possibility of  Vedic civilization and ancient dynasty being centered around the Amu Sind and Vakhsh (Vaku) rivers. The one river Oxus signifies sharp/sight and the other signifies speech. There is a relationship with Iksh-vaku (Sharp sight-speech), the well-known sage. Iksh-vaku is the great grandson of sage Kashyapa

The debate on which side of Hindu-kush mountains the Vedic civilization originated still continues and has resulted in ideology wars resulting in formation of several political parties like left wing, ring wing, Dravidian parties and secular parties in India. Indian scholars supported with nationalist ideology predict Vedic civilization on eastern side of Hindu-Kush near Harappan civilization and western scholars with secular ideology predict on western side of Hindu-Kush mountains(from Vaksha River) towards Amu-darya river belt and mention about Aryan migration theory towards east as we have read in our school history books. However, both side agree that most of mountains in Hindu Kush ranges and rivers from Hindu-Kush are clearly mentioned in Rig-Veda and it is only matter of this or that side which scholars from both side need to come to conclusion. I do not want to join this debate and become a political prey :-). I am just placing both the facts. Western scholars go further and mention that rivers changed course in Hindu kush mountains due to possible earth quakes or possibly due to internal conflicts and give reasons that few rulers moved still further towards west and established Hurrian Mitanni kingdom and others crossed Hindu Kush and traveled eastwards towards the Gangetic basin.

For the fact, there are striking similarities between the Eastern Iranian language of Avestan and Sanskrit, which may support the notion that the split was contemporary with the Vedic civilization living in Afghanistan at a very early stage. If we talk about archaeological evidences similar like Hindu mythology or epics, we get several 100's of them from Sumerian clay tablets ( 4000 BC old), Yamna cultureSamara culture, Kama culture that lies on western part of Hindu Kush mountains and we do not get sufficient Hindu mythological epics or texts or archaeological evidence from Harappan civilization apart from few animal or deities seals that have Indus scripts and potteries that was used for trading. I did travel different parts of our country, visited several museums, visited several ancient caves, but did not get a single piece of evidence or literatures done using ancient scripts. All literature were either early Brahmi or Pali script that happened to be around 1000BC. I have done detailed study on ancient scripts in section 3. Based on latest data available on genetics considering R1a DNA ancestors, it provides strong support of migration from west to east. These migrations have taken place in several waves that includes the migration of trading communities, few tribes and that is the main reason Indian culture is so diverse and we have so many deities to pray. India has accepted all cultures that arrived here in times and has rejected none to make it so diverse and our Sages have played a prominent role in keeping the people united and creating theories and also marriages between deities so that everyone is happy. Archaeological excavations also clearly indicate that during early Harappan period (about 3200–2600 BCE) have similarities in pottery, seals, figurines, ornaments with Mesopotamian civilization and Greeks. There was also intensive sea trade from Indus civilization with Central Asia. In Mesopotamian (Sumerian texts), we see that there is repeated reference to three important centers with which they traded: Magan (could be current Oman), Dilmun (could be current Bahrain) and Meluhha (referred to Indus Valley civilization). This kind of trading continued even during Mauryan rule and also later dynasties as we see trading even today.

A Vedic temple dedicated to Jwalamai, inscribed with Gayatri mantra in Sanskrit, was located in the port town of Baku on the Caspian Sea (Kaspische Zee ) built by the Baku Hindu traders community around the time of the fall of the Shirvanshah dynasty

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ateshgah_of_Baku

https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Baku,+Azerbaijan/@40.4206242,49.6625464,9.48z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x40307d6bd6211cf9:0x343f6b5e7ae56c6b!8m2!3d40.4092617!4d49.8670924

Additional fact to support migration theory is, both of these early dynasty rulers (Hurrian-speaking Mitanni peoplewhich moved towards west and people related to Ikshvaku dynasty moved from Hindu-kush eastwards pray same Vedic GOD ( Indra, Varuna, Mitra, Agni etc). The Hurrian-speaking Mitanni people and the king of Mitanni refer series of Hurrian gods like Mitrašil, Uruvanaššil, Indara, and Našatianna, who correspond to the Vedic gods Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Asvin) in peace treaty with Egyptian kings as displayed in Clay tablets of those days.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tushratta  - Tushratta/Dashratta(Sanskrit Tvesa-ratha, "his chariot charges") was a king of Mitanni . Below is peace treaty letter to Egyptian king


Same Gods are also prayed by Ikshvaku dynasty.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikshvaku_dynasty


To further add on languages similarities, take current Iraq's capital Baghdad as example. All scholars agree that it had earlier Assyrian origin and was referred as Baghdadu by Assyrian or Assur kings. In our Hindu mythology, Narak'asura' is a legendary asura who also had son named Baghdadu

Refer above an ancient map of central Asia and take famous town Urartu or Ur as example which is birth point of most of belief system as we see as of today. Ur is the Sumerian term for a geographical region as Village, Town and Armenian “Ayrarat". Ur also has same meaning in south Indian languages like Kannada, Tamil etc. as town or village. Even today, we refer towns and villages with ending 'Ur'. Bengal'ur'Mys'ur', Tumk'ur' etc.

If you dig further, common identical words having the same meaning and there are several more.
Sumerian   Kannada/Tamil etc       English
ap                    apa                             ( Father)
ama                 amma                         ( Mother ) 

It looks like Sumerian languages are close to Dravidian languages and English or Indo-European languages like German, English, Latin is close to Sanskrit.


Root Sanskrit Word Latin/ Greek Current English Word

Manu (means First Human)
NA Man/Men/Human
Pithr (meaning Father) Pater (Latin) Father
Bhrathr (meaning Brother) Phrater (Greek) Brother
Gau (meaning Cow) Bous (Greek) Cow
Matr (meaning Mother) Mater (Latin) Mother
Jan (meaning Generation) Genea (Greek) Gene
Aksha (meaning Axis) Axon (Greek) Axis
Navagatha (meaning Navigation) Navigationem (Latin) Navigation
Sarpa (meaning Snake) Serpentem (Latin) Serpent
Naas (means Nose) Nasus (Latin) Nose
Anamika (means Anonymous) Anonymos (Greek) Anonymous
Naama (means Name) Nomen (Latin) Name
Ashta (meaning Eight) Octo (Latin) Eight
Barbara (meaning Foreign) Barbaria (Latin) Barbarian
Dhama (meaning House) Domus (Latin) Domicile
Danta (meaning Teeth) Dentis (Latin) Dental
Dwar (meaning Door) Doru Door
Dasha (meaning Ten) Deca (Greek) Deca
Madhyam (meaning Medium) Medium (Latin) Medium
Kaal (meaning Time) Kalendae (Latin) Calendar
Kri (meaning To Do) Creatus (Latin) Create
Mishra (meaning Mix) Mixtus (Latin) Mix
Ma (meaning Me/My) Me (Latin) Me
Loka (meaning Place) Locus (Latin) Locale
Maha (meaning Great) Magnus (Latin) Mega
Mala (meaning Dirt/Bad) Malus (Latin) Mal as in Malicious
Makshikaa (meaning Bee) Musca (Latin) -Fly Mosquito
Mrta (meaning Dead) Mortis (Latin) Murder
Na (meaning No) Ne No
Nakta (meaning Night) Nocturnalis (Latin) Nocturnal
Paad (meaning Foot) Pedis (Latin) Ped as in Pedestrial, Pedal etc
Pancha (meaning Five) Pente (Greek) Penta, Five
Parah (meaning Remote) Pera (Greek) Far
Patha (meaning Path) Pathes (Greek) Path
Raja / Raya (meaning King) Regalis (Latin) Royal
Sama (meaning Similar) Similis (Latin) Similar
Sapta (meaning Seven) Septum (Latin) Seven
Sharkara (meaning Sugar) Succarum Sugar / Sucrose
Smi (meaning Smile) Smilen (Latin) Smile
SthaH (meaning Situated) Stare (Latin) (meaning To Stand) Stay
Svaad (meaning Tasty) Suavis (Latin) Sweet
Tha (meaning That) Talis (Latin) That
Tva (meaning Thee) Dih Thee
Vachas (meaning Speech) Vocem (Latin) Voice
Vahaami (meaning Carry) Vehere (meaning to Carry) (Latin) Vehicle
Vama / Vamati (meaning Vomit) Vomere (Latin) Vomit
Vastr (meaning Cloth) Vestire (Latin) Vest
Yauvana (meaning Youth) Juvenilis (Latin) Juvenile
Narangi (meaning Orange) Naranj Orange
Pippali (meaning Pepper) Piperi (Greek) Pepper
Chandana (meaning Sandalwood) Santalon (Greek) Sandalwood
Chandra (meaning Moon) Candela (Latin)  Candle
Chatur (meaning Four) Quartus (Latin) Quarter
Shunya (meaning Zero) Cipher (Arabic) Zero
Nava (meaning New) Novus (Latin) Nova – New
Kafa (meaning Mucus) Coughen Cough
Mithya (meaning Lie) Mythos (Greek) Myth
Thri (meaning Three) Treis (Greek) Three
Mush (meaning Mouse) Mus (Latin) Mouse
Maragadum (meaning Emerald) Smaragdus (Latin) Emerald
Srgalah (meaning Jackal) Shagal (Persian) Jackal
Nila (meaning Dark Blue) Nilak (Persian) Lilac
Nara (meaning Nerve) Nervus (Latin) Nerve, Nervous
Prati per (Latin) per
Srgalah Shagal (Persian) Jackal
Upalah (meaning Precious Stone) Opalus (Latin) Opal
Vrihis (meaning Rice) Oriza (Latin) Rice
Upalah (meaning Precious Stone) Opalus (Latin) Opal
Barbar (meaning stammering) Barbaros (Greek) Barbarian
Jaanu (meaning knee) Genu (Latin) Knee
Sunu (meaning Son or Offspring) Sunu (German) Son
Ghas (meaning eat) Grasa (German) Grass
Samiti (meaning Committee) committere (Latin) Committee
Sama (meaning Same) Samaz (Proto Germanic) Same
Lubh (meaning Desire) Lubo (Latin and Proto Germanic) Love
Agni (meaning Fire) Ignis (Latin) Ignite
Hrt (meaning Heart) Herto (Proto Germanic) Heart
Yaana (meaning journey, wagon) Wagen (German) Van, Wagon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_Sanskrit_origin

It does not stop only with reference of names of cities and countries in Central Asia. It had almost similar belief system those days like we have in Indian sub-continent as of today.

Bagh refers “GOD” and dad “given”, translating to “God-given” and both of these civilization refer this town with same meaning from ancient days till today. Baghvad Purana is "God given epic" in our Hindu Mythology. Again, we refer GOD as 'Bhag' for Bhagvan Buddha, Bhagvan Rama, Bhagvan Krishna etc. A devotee of Bhagvan Krishna is called a Bhagavata. This is my current surname :-).

'Bag'van related names appears as far as Russia, Romania and most of European countries. This is used by automobile companies like Bogdan group, famous football players and other great personalities. 'Bogdan' or Bohdan is derived from the Slavic words Bog/Boh (Cyrillic: Бог), meaning "god", and dan (Cyrillic: дан), meaning "gift. Either Bogdan or Bohdan may be used in Poland.

'Dan' is gift in Sanskrit, Kannada, Hindi and almost all India languages even today and Bhag is god for referring Bhagvad Gita, Bhagvan and Bhag followers like us as 'Bhagwath'
Check list of names from Bogdan that are linked to famous personalities across the world:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogdan

I just took my surname  'Bhagwath' as example and was able to achieve similarities across the world with people having similar surnames. Just take below example of river names, nouns and verbs used by Slavs. It is almost similar like Sanskrit that is used here in India.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_languages


Nouns ( Russian)
Sanskrit Equivalent
English Meaning
Kogda
Kada
When
Oba
ubha
Both
Tot
Tat
That
Vsegda
Sada
Always
Togda
Tada
Then
Putnik
pathika
Traveller
Estestvo
astitva
Being
Dom
Dham
House
Jena
Jani
Wife
Mat
Matr
Mother
Syn
Sunu
Son
Snoha
Snusa
Daughter-in-law
Svoystvo
svatva
Property
Dever
Devar
Brother-in-law
Zyat
Jata,Jati
Son-in-law
Brat
Bhratah
brother
Verbs (Russian)
Sanskrit Equivalent
English Meaning
vad – vadit
vad – vadati
to confer or dispute about; to contend, quarrel
pros – prosit
prach – prachhati
to ask, to question, interrogate
vɨspra – vɨsprašivaet
viprach – viprcchati
to ask various questions, make various inquiries
peč – pečyot
pас – pacati
to cook, bake, roast, boil
lay – laet
rai – rayati
to bark
bɨ – budet
bhū – bhavati
to become, be
tuz – tuzit
tuj – tojayati
to hurt
gor – gorit
ghṛ – ghаrati
to shine, burn
las – laskaet
las – lasāti
to play, sport, frolic; to embrace
voz – vozit
vah – vahati
to carry, transport, convey
lov – lovit
labh – labhate
to take, seize, catch
lel – lelyeet
lal – lālayati
to  caress, fondle, foster, cherish
bav – bаvit
bhū – bhavayati
exist, be found, live, stay, abide, happen, occur; to cause to be or become; to cherish, foster
kasl – kaslyaet
kās – kāsate
to cough
svet – svetaet
śvit – śvetate
to be bright or white
mer – mryot
mṛ – marati
to die, decease
pi – p’yot
pī – piyate
to drink
suš – sušit
śuṣ – śuṣyati
to dry, become dry or withered
mor – morit
mṛ – mārayati
to cause to die, kill, slay
pad – padyot
pad – padyate
to fall
perd – perdit
pard – pardati
to break wind downwards
boya – boitsya
bhyas – bhyasate
to fear, be afraid, tremble
otda – otdayot
uddā – uddadāti
to give away
vɨd – vɨdayot
vidā – vidadāti
to give out, distribute, grant
po – poit
pa – pāyayati
to cause to drink, give to drink, water (horses or cattle)
i – idyot
iṭ – eṭati
to go
bɨv – bɨvaet
bhū – bhavati
to happen, occur
mes – mesit
miśr – miśrayati
to mix, mingle, blend, combine
zna – znaet
jña – jānāti
to know, have knowledge
liz – ližet
lih – lihati
to lick
vɨliz – vɨlizɨvaet
vilih – vilelihat
to lick continually or repeatedly
živ – živaet
jīv – jīvati
to live, be or remain alive
ver – veraet
vṛ – varati
to cove, screen, veil, conceal, hide, surround, obstruct, to close (a door)
lyub – lyubit
lubh – lubhati
to desire greatly or eagerly, long for, be interested in
vorot – vorotit
vṛt – vartayati
to cause to turn or revolve
top – topit
tap – tapati
to make hot or warm
mer – merit
mi – miroti
to measure, meter, out, mark
do – doit
dhe –  dhayati
to suck, drink
val – valit
val – valiti
to turn, turn round
vɨlup – vɨlupit
vilup – vilumpati
to tear or break off or to pieces, wound, lacerate pull out or up; to tear away
slav – slavit
śram – śramyati
sound, shout, loud praise
tyan – tyanet
tan – tanoti
to stretch (a cord), extend
ri – rinet
rī – riṇāti
to release, set free, let go
vert – vertit
vṛt – vartate
to turn, turn round, revolve, roll
rev – revyot
ru – ravīti
to roar, bellow, howl, yelp, cry aloud
val – valyaet
val – valate
to turn, turn round
vid – vidit
vid – vidati
to notice,  observe; to know, understand, perceive, learn, become or be acquainted with, be conscious of
isk – iščet
iṣ –  icchati; eṣati
to seek, search; to desire, wish, long for, request
proda – prodast
pradā – pradatte
to give away, give, offer, sell
oddel – oddelyaet
uddal – uddalati
to split away, break away
tryas – tryasyot
tras –  trasyati
to tremble
bles – bleščet
bhlāś – bhlāśate
to shine, beam, glitter
sid – sidit
sad – sīdati
to sit upon or in or at smth.
spa – spit
svap – svapiti
to sleep,  fall asleep
rɨd – rɨdaet
rud – rodati
to weep, cry, howl, roar, lament, wail
klešč – kleščit
kliś – kliśnati
to torment, cause pain
bde – bdit
budh – budhyati
to be awake
lip – lipnet
lip – limpyati
to be smeared; to be attached to, to stick, to adhere
lep – lepit
lip – lepayati
the act of smearing, daubing, anointing, plastering
vɨtyan – vɨtyanet
vitan – vitanute
to spread out, to stretch, extend,  to unfold, display, exhibit, manifest
vɨživ – vɨživaet
vijīv – vijīvati
to revive, return to life
slad – sladit
svad – svadati
to make sweet or pleasant or agreeable
plav – plavaet
plu – plavate
to float, swim
bra – beryot
bhṛ – bharati
to hold, possess, have, keep
mni – mnit
mna – manate
to think, believe, imagine
pɨt – pɨtaet
piṭh – peṭhati
to inflict or feel pain
kas – kasaet
kaṣ – kaṣati
to  test, try; to rub
vɨver – vɨvernet
vivṛti – vivartate
to turn back or away
vert – vertaet
vṛt – vartate
to turn, turn round
vert – vertit
vrt – vartayati
to cause to turn or revolve
bud – budit
budh – budhyate
to wake up
vol – volit
vṛ – vṛṇoti; varayati
to choose, select, choose for one’s self, choose as; to like, love well
As we all know, all these earlier civilizations like Mesopotamian civilization got destroyed in times and so as Babylonian, Egyptian, Roman, Persian and several 100's which had such a beautiful heritage and powerful empires got vanished except Sanatana Philosophy(Hinduism) that prevailed from oldest Sarasvati civilization and still strong as of today. Many people in Russia, Romania etc. even today love India because, there old ancestral culture is nurtured and preserved only in India. The main reason beyond this is Hinduism. Hinduism has no known founder and no single book to be followed which easily allowed scholars to do reforms for better philosophical and religious practices in times that can digest any king of cultural invasions. Hinduism is a culture that constantly evolves and not stagnant with set of rules. In my view, Sanatana Dharma( referred as Hinduism) is like Open Source Code and like other belief, it doesn't prescribe an absolute code of Dos and Don'ts and this made scholars to easily customize, do bug fixing and evolve to still better philosophy. There could be deep mythology added at few cults or tribal regions might still follow some animal sacrifices, however at higher source of knowledge of Dharma, it is purely science. The term 'Hindu' (Sindhu river got referred as Hindu from Persians) itself is relatively new and the word Hindu is not found in of our ancient Puranas or Vedas. Again, we should not debate each other belief system and I am strictly against it. We are in democratic India that supports freedom of religion or freedom of belief guaranteed by Article 25-28 of the Constitution and this should be respected always. Instead let us start understanding how Indus scripts got evolved to current form and this at least will make people understand in Indian sub-continent with valid proof that we all evolved from same source of humanity and we all share same DNA.
Artic and northern part of Russia like Siberia was warmer 10000 years back and in science we call this as Holocene climatic optimum. This climate supported human civilization and slowly culture developed like Yamana ( Death GOD praying culture), Samara, Kurgan, Kama, Idol worship etc and slowly smaller dynasties formed with leaders identified. People started getting slowly in self realization mode and they started working on Vedas and Astronomy. Stonehenge or Arkaim (Swastica City) of Russia is best example of Rig-Vedic experiments of past on Astronomy on trying to build universe model. Once these regions became colder, people migrated towards south in Central Asia and once few rivers got dried up in Central Asia and possibly due internal conflicts forced Vedic community to look for alternate location that is most peaceful and most of these Vedic sages chose India as homeland and slowly Sanatana culture developed here in Indian homeland and several social reforms took place. The word "Arya" refers as noble and there is no racial tag attached to it. Aryan invasion is false theory given by British to divide our society. To be specific about Indian subcontinent, the common culture that we follow in our Indian subcontinent as of now was actually spread by Rishis (Saints) those days. Rishis those days traveled length and breadth of this country debating the merits and demerits of various systems of philosophy (School of Thoughts) . We all know that Rishis those days achieved spiritual knowledge by self-realization and knowledge sharing by Gurukul system and during course of time, it helped our country to produce exceptional scholars in respective school of thoughts who preached philosophy in various modes and this actually helped our country to slowly get diverse culture as we see today and same way, several mythologies got created during course of time when these Saints tried to explain the spiritual knowledge to common man. Again, some great epics like Ramayana or Mahabharata that we read as of today were actual facts and some myths also got added eventually to make the story telling more interesting when it got passed from generations, however everyone tried to preach individual school of thoughts in best possible ways to common man. People who knew or provided this knowledge of "Universal Truth" considered themselves as Brahmans, people who engaged in warfare considered themselves as Kshatriyas and people engaged in service were considered as Shudras and so on which later helped to form caste system in society. When the same person changes his or her profession, caste was considered to be changed those days. However later on due to unfortunate dominance of particular community, this became a family tag and slowly got referred as community based caste system.

Understanding Ancient Scripts and how did it evolve to current form?

If we talk about writing system those ancient days (pictorial representation of symbols) which have evolved to our current alphabets, we clearly find that all these civilization have many similarities.The earliest writing systems evolved independently and at roughly the same time in Vedic civilization near North West of Afghanistan - Indus Valley, Egypt and Mesopotamia, but current scholarship suggests that Mesopotamia's writing appeared first.  However, we have evidences now that Vedic Aryans had writing system as old 5000 BC near Arkaim. Writing system from Sumerians, emerged in Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE. In general, it looks like writing systems appeared almost same time due to trading or people migration during those days.

Ancient Proto Indo-European script from which Balto-Slavic, Ancient Sanskrit, Greek, Italic, English etc emerged) can be something like below based on excavations at Arkaim (Swastika City) or other locations of Vedic civilization in North West Afghanistan or South East Russia and also Vedic cultural evidences found in and around Caspian Sea.



Sumerians have almost similar symbols in most of cases and detailed references : http://www.ancientscripts.com/sumerian.html




Below is one such similarity:

Below picture is Indus Seal that was recovered as few artifacts from those era (2600 BC Indus valley civilization) …. Read as 'ka-nta-ma-ha-an’ could refer that the person sitting is great and people might have referred this character as GOD.


But nothing flashed my mind then and got busy spending time with my 6 months old daughter and was quietly listening to her and the way she was trying to communicate for her demands. This is general observations we all experience with our kids and we learn from babies that they normally speak only two alphabets till age of 1 year…. Like “Ma” for mother, “Wo” for water, “Da”, “Ta” etc. and this is the way they start learning to communicate to full word and then sentences so on. After a while spending my good time with my daughter Ritu, something suddenly flashed my mind and I immediately questioned myself…. Is this the same way our ancestors communicated in those early civilizations time? And started investigating myself in internet. For the fact, my assumption was 100% true.

In fact, when human civilization happened, people those days used to speak only two letters and slowly developed to speak full word in course of centuries. Later they started representing them in form of pictorial diagrams which you easily locate in Internet or artefacts collected from those era in museums today.
If we properly see Harappan Signs or Indus valley signs (around 2500 BC) and the artefacts that were collected from these locations, it is clearly visible that people those days started representing these pictorial words as signs and this is the same representation that became our current alphabets in all our scripts.

It looks that all our alphabets have evolved from the same civilization and again due to trade happening those days from other three river valley civilization, it is somewhat same scripts used across several locations in world as of today.
If we come to 3rd BCE during Ashoka’s regime, most of his inscriptions in rock pillars were Brahmi script which is one of the most important writing systems in the world those days and further some of the earliest historical inscriptions found in India. Most importantly, it is the ancestor to hundreds of scripts found in South, Southeast, and East Asia.

Below is Brahmi rock inscriptions of Ashoka belong to 3rd Century BCE (300–200 BCE)

Did Brahmi come from Indus script?

Brahmi script appears to have actually come from mixture of Indus script, Sumerian scripts along with few of proto-European scripts that were used during Vedic age. I am trying to place as many facts or findings that I have done and verified with few expert cyphers and data that I have collected in internet and few museums. However, it is little complex and I would prefer more research can be conducted by actual experts in this area

Please read more about Brahmi script in below URL:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmi_script


Below are few examples on how Brahmi could have been arrived from Indus script. Some are my representation considering single alphabet in sheet of paper as below:

Take example of “ga”, “ta” and “ka” below from Harappan to Brahmi…..




Just take our first alphabet “a” and it appears that there was also relation with Proto-Sinatic signs along with Indus signs and might have helped to evolve Brahmi from many centuries to current form.


Below are some of beautiful data that I collected from Internet (Wikipedia) and few photos from respective temples or historical places.

History of Tamil Script from Tamil Brahmi:

Look below…. Transformation of Indus sign ‘ma’ to ‘ma’ in Tamil Brahmi and then to early Tamil ‘ma’ and then finally in current form in below images.
 Look at the evolution of all Tamil scripts from Brahmi from those days till current form.
Similarly all other regional scripts including  Telegu, Kannada and also the scripts that we see in Asia Pacific like Javanese, Thai etc. are all evolved from Brahmi which could have been evolved from Indus scripts.

Below is evolution of Kannada-Telegu scripts from Brahmi to current form

 Our scripts and languages as we see today in current Sanskrit, Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Javanese, Thai, Bengali, Gujarati or any regional languages got evolved from common script from those days.  Data displayed in this blog clearly proves that knowledge of scripts, human communication could have been arrived from same source of ideas which later evolved into specific country, state languages due to boundaries established in kingdoms those days. People movement got restricted due to boundaries and the regions started developing respective alphabets slowly in different form from the same ancient script source during course of time and same happened to spoken languages as well which got evolved due to dialects in those regions.

Conclusion:

Everyone here in India has freedom of religion or freedom of belief guaranteed by Article 25-28 of the Constitution and we are a Secular country. Please respect our constitution before fighting with each other in name of religion, caste and languages.

India is a Place of Re-union of many Religions, people union of different languages, union of diverse cultures that settled here in times. It is India that has kept alive a message of Unity in Diversity and the foundation for unity would be Advaita philosophy.



Using simple English and collecting various data facts, below are my conclusion. If people put some effort to understand the source of belief system and the concept which actually was preached those ancient days, I am sure Universal brotherhood can be achieved.

1.  "Dharma Yuddha" or "Holy war" etc comes from same source of ideas. Unfortunately due to several divisions in Indo-European languages, individual dynasties and scholars developed own concepts. In simple English, I have tried my best to show the striking similarities and data facts in this blog on similarities of belief system of all faiths as of today. Please put some effort to understand the correct concept of being noble person from these great books before you fight with each other in name of religion and caste.

2. All ancient faith has almost similar stories. Skanda Puranas match with Epic of Gilgamesh in Sumeria, Slavic ( Eastern European and Russian) ancient faith deities have similar like deities of Hindu mythology and same as Greeks, Ancient Persians, Romans  and several others that match exactly with story on Birth of Krishna in Hindu mythology. Please put some effort to understand that all faiths came from same source of Ideas that happened at same location after end of last ICE AGE. Epics got altered slightly due to people/scholars migration from North to south and then west-east due to climatic changes and internal conflicts in that region. 

3. If you do deep dive study on rituals practiced as of today in individual faiths including practices like fasting, celebrating festival of lights during re-birth of respective war GOD's or deities and locate the source of origin, you find all faiths finally pray same source. Rituals or Festival days are slightly different in individual faiths just because some use Lunar calendar and some Solar calendar and some different method to arrive at festival day. If we all use same calendar and same method to identify the festival days, we get the truth that we all are finally praying same source. There are striking similarities in rituals of all faiths and the festival days followed during every year if done deep dive analysis. We all are one and this is the message for universal brotherhood. 

4.  All ancient scripts and languages have same source finally. Put some effort to decipher scripts based on simple concepts that I shared in this blog and understand the reality and do not fight with each other in name of languages and region. 

5. If you do not understand the ancient mythologies or Holy Books, please understand modern science at least  and you will come to know that all humans have same DNA that are branched out due to migrations either by Climatic changes or internal conflicts with people in that region. Some have migrated before ICE AGE and some after.

6. In case if you feel that you belong to higher caste/religion and have gained amazing spiritual knowledge, please understand that you were also an hunting tribe earlier. None of us have come here from some other planet. Please be kind enough to extend your support in providing education or reservations to backward classes/Tribes who did not get opportunity like you and support them for the dreams they too have like you. Do not enforce your food habits or belief system that you follow on others by force and do not again divide this society in name of caste and religion. In general, please note that human migrations have happened in past and will happen in future also and the main reason for people migrations are attributed to "Climatic changes". We cannot attach nationalism or localism with it. When rivers gets dried up with no source of vegetation, nationalism or localism will not play any role and people will look for alternate location for survival and this is human nature. Change is the law of nature and does not listen to anyone and everyone should understand this. Finally, we all are one and this is the truth. India is best example for Unity in Diversity and this country should be a role model for Universal Brotherhood.
References :

Arctic Orgin of Vedashttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Arctic_Home_in_the_Vedas
DNA reference ( R1a particularly) http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1a_Y-DNA.shtml
International DNA project. - http://www.r1a.org/2.htm 
Also reference to below Wikipedia will lead to several links and other reliable scientific projects related to this topic- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a
Vedas, Puranas and Upanishads:
Ancient Scripts and History

htttp://www.ancientscripts.com/brahmi.html

Disclaimer: I am a knowledge seeker and looking for more and more actual facts to support my blog on Final truth and lay a strong foundation of Universal Brotherhood. My entire blog is based on my interest and study based on Ancient Indian Philosophy, Ancient Scripts and R1a DNA evolution. Incase if something mentioned in my blog is wrong or incorrect, please help to correct me with actual scientific proofs or actual archaeological evidences or validated literature books or evidences that you find in museums, internet etc. with carbon dating and I can update them accordingly in my blog. Again, I am not fluent in English and my mother tongue is Konkani and I am very fluent in only Kannada language and have written this blog with utmost care. If there are some English grammatical errors, I sincerely apologize and request to please correct me by sending email and do not take something from this blog and have your own meaning yourself without properly understanding Spirituality and Literature. I have collected all these data from reliable sources with links provided and to support the cause of Universal brotherhood, I have spent my personal money to travel to different countries in world and even to most remote islands in Indonesia and have done home stay with communities there for understanding belief systems and spiritual ideas what they follow and actual meaning of it. Most of data and pictures are from Internet, encyclopedia, school books, museums etc.. Please do not debate each other belief system and I am strictly against it. We are in democratic India that supports freedom of religion or freedom of belief guaranteed by Article 25-28 of the Constitution and this should be respected. To prevent abuses and debates on other belief system, I have removed the permission to anonymous comments and people can message only to my email ID. with actual facts that can support me to update my blog. Thank you.