Thursday, November 12, 2009

Creation of Life

Why does everything in the universe from galaxies down to atoms spin? What makes life ?
The answer to this question is the truth behind every force and truth behind life. If you are curious, then I suggest read them below published in this site. It is all science and nothing else.


The Simple Truth that causes Spin is : "Changing magnetic field induce an electric field and changing electric field create magnetic field".

Generation of electric current and working principles of many electrical/electronic appliance is due to same principle as mentioned above. This is one of the most basic law of nature that resulted in discovery/inventions on thousands of electrical/electronic appliances was due to interrelation between electric and magnetic field.
In nature, electric field and the magnetic field are interlinked.When we speak about the spin we find in universe, atoms and electrons, I always believed that these rotations are caused by some electromagnetic fields and this is true.

Magnetism was my object of curiosity. From our school days we have experimented and have learnt that magnets attract specific metals, and they have north and south poles. Opposite poles attract each other while like poles repel.
We also have learnt that Magnetic and electrical fields are related and these basics have been used in variety of inventions.
Electro-magnetic forces form vital components in CRT televisions, speakers, microphones, generators, transformers, electric motors, computer hard disk, cassette tapes, compasses etc.

Let us go still deeper and investigate them.
When we see some electrical objects rotating, example electric fans, we know that they have an electric motor to carry out the task. Functioning of an electric motor helps us to understand all about magnets and the forces that cause rotation.
A motor uses magnets to create motion and using the fundamental law of all magnets (Opposites attract and likes repel), these attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion.

But why do magnets attract specific metals? What causes opposite poles to get attracted and likes repel?When we speak about electric motor, we move electrical charges to create magnetic field. This is also true in permanent magnets as well.
But we need know that magnetic field actually comes from the movement of electrons.
Electrons in atoms in an nucleus spin in the way planets spin around Sun. If one of the electrons in a pair spins upward, the other spins downward. It's impossible for both of the electrons in a pair to spin in the same direction. This is part of a quantum-mechanical principle known as the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Since paired electrons spin in opposite directions, their magnetic fields cancel one another out.

Atoms of ferromagnetic elements, on the other hand, have several unpaired electrons that have the same spin. Iron, for example, has four unpaired electrons with the same spin. Because they have no opposing fields to cancel their effects, these electrons have an orbital magnetic moment. A whole magnet's magnetic moments come from the moments of all of its atoms.
In metals like iron, the orbital magnetic moment encourages nearby atoms to align along the same north-south field lines. Iron and other ferromagnetic materials are crystalline. As they cool from a molten state, groups of atoms with parallel orbital spin line up within the crystal structure. You may have noticed that the materials that make good magnets are the same as the materials magnets attract. This is because magnets attract materials that have unpaired electrons that spin in the same direction. In other words, the quality that turns a metal into a magnet also attracts the metal to magnets. Many other elements are diamagnetic -- their unpaired atoms create a field that weakly repels a magnet. A few materials don't react with magnets at all.

But my basic question is why moving electric charges produce magnetic field? Is the magnetic field nothing but minute opposite electric charges again around the charged body?Till now we have investigated that atoms are composed of three particles with an electric charge: electrons, protons and uncharged neutrons. Electrons have a negative charge, and protons have a positive charge. The negative charge of the electron has the same magnitude, or amount of charge, as the positive charge of the proton.

Electrical charge is quantized, with the smallest unit of electrical charge found in a single electron or proton. If we double the number of electrons or protons, we double the amount of negative or positive electric charge. If we triple the electrons or protons, we triple the electric charge. By increasing the amount of single unit electric charges, we have a net charge. A net charge is the summed value of single electrical charges.

What happens when we keep removing Valence electrons from a group of neutral atoms? 
We end up with a group of positive ions and a group of free Valence electrons. Each group has a net positive or net negative electrical charge. We can call each charged group a body of charge.
In the 18th century, Charles Augustin de Coulomb set up an experiment using the early version of what we call a Torsion Balance to observe how charged pith balls reacted to each other. These pith balls represented point charges; point charges are charged bodies that are very small when compared to the distance between them. Coulomb observed two behaviors about electric force:
The magnitude of electric force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges.
The magnitude of the electric force between two point charges is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
There is a relationship between electric field, E , and the electric force, F , exerted on another electric charge in that field. The simplest mathematical description is the following expression:
F = q E
The symbol q represents the electric charge; q will be negative or positive depending on the electric charge. The vector E is positive or negative depending on the direction it is pointing-towards or away from the field generating electric charge.

Coulomb's law deals with only static charges. This got me thinking that there should be some minute objects surrounding the electrons to balance the charges that electrons( charged sphere) have and then exert a force outside. If electrons are net negatively charged, then there should be net positive charged bodies around them to balance the charges and does these objects actually create magnetic field?



So Let's start. What exactly is magnetic field? What are the objects that create magnetic field?

Since electrons in atoms are negatively charged, using one of electrostatic principle, there should be opposite charges around them to balance the charges that electrons have and I believe that there are minute charged body around the electrons again and these are the objects that actually cause the magnetic flux.

Consider if the electrons spin around the nucleus, then the minute charged body surrounding the electrons should spin again around the electrons and again, since we have learnt that electrical charge is quantized, number of these minute charged bodies should be proportional to amount electric charge in electrons.

I will name the minute charged bodies around electrons as mX-tron. Since the electrons are said to carry negative charges, then mx-tron should carry positive charges and if we consider single mx-tron, I guess the charges can be ignored, since they should be very minimal. The positive charges of mX-tron actually helps the electrons spin around the nucleus. The negatively charged electrons actually tends to get an some attractive force from positively charged protons in nucleus. But the minute positive charges around electrons actually repel with positive charges of protons in the nucleus and I believe this cause the spin movement of electrons around nucleus. When the electrons or any charged body spin, we see that magnetic current is produced around them and the matter associated is from mX-Trons.

Atoms of ferromagnetic elements, which have several unpaired electrons that have the same spin have no opposing fields to cancel their effects, these electrons have an orbital magnetic moment. A current of mX-trons from several electrons add each other to produce what felt combined magnetic field.

How do we define Di-polar nature exhibited by magnets?
If you had played with bar magnets and noticed the behaviour properly, you notice that like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other.

But as I believe, mX-trons cause the magnetic flux and they should be minute positive charged bodies around electrons working as the actual objects in magnetic flux. So when you actually try to bring like poles against each other, naturally they should repel, since combined mX-tron charges (positive) repel with combined mX-tron charges (positive) of other magnet.

But if you use a force greater than the repulsive force, they actually they get attracted towards each other and act as a single bar magnet exhibiting combined Di-polar nature again and this means, the mX-tron charges show a combined force. Which again as per law of nature exhibits force or flux moving from high polarity (North pole) to lower polarity (South pole).And when we bring unlike poles against each other, we see an attractive force. If you notice the magnetic flux produced by bar magnet, you will easily understand this principle. The magnetic flux moves from north pole to south pole and naturally there is a force for unlike poles to get attracted and once attracted they exhibit or work as a single magnet exhibiting combined Di-polar nature again. The working principle of mX-tron actually helps me to explain many theories in-depth and contradict some. We have seen and used several electronic appliances such as Radio, Television, Mobile phones etc. All these devices work using electro-magnetic waves to transmit and receive the signals. Radio and telephone are devices that convert sound energy into electrical and vice versa, the television wireless technology transmits electromagnetic waves and converts them into sound and light energy for viewing. For example in Television, a camera scans an image with an electron beam and converts it into electronic signals for transmission via antenna, antenna converts the electrical signals into electromagnetic waves. The information is then broad-casted and received by a device that run the process in reverse, using the cathode-ray tube by scanning the image for viewing. 

What are electro-magnetic wave? 
Electromagnetic radiation is a self-propagating wave in space or through matter. Electromagnetic radiation has an electric and magnetic field component which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and to the direction of energy propagation. So when I speak about electric and magnetic field component oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other, I speak electric waves from electron charge and charges of mX-tron perpendicular to each other. This is natural, since mx-trons spin around the electrons and when an electric signals is sent to antenna, naturally a wave is created with these oscillating perpendicular to each other. Electromagnetic radiation are classified into types according to the frequency of the wave.---radio waves, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. Of these, radio waves have the longest wavelengths and Gamma rays have the shortest. A frequencies of wave, called visible spectrum or light, is sensed by the eye of various organisms, with variations of the limits of this narrow spectrum




















How is a visible spectrum created? How do we actually see objects?
Visible spectrum which is sensed by our eyes or eyes of various organisms, can be artificially created by some of electric equipment such as bulbs, tube lights etc. Naturally, radiant energy emitted by the sun from a nuclear fusion reaction creates Electromagnetic Wave. The reaction creates various waves such as infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation etc. Only a small frequencies of wave is sensed by our eyes and they are referred as visible spectrum. In Sun, during a nuclear fusion reaction, electrons (E) absorb energy, they move to higher energy levels (become `excited e - E+1') and when E fall back to lower energy levels they must lose this energy by emitting radiation, usually as photons of light. Artificially to create light, In our electric tube lights, a potential difference is created between terminals. The electrical energy passing through the gas inside the tube causes the gas to give off photons of light. The electrons (E) of the gas atoms absorb energy due to potential energy, and they move to higher energy levels (become `excited e - E+1') and when E fall back to lower energy levels they must lose this energy by emitting radiation, usually as photons of light. This is as per theory we have learnt till now. I contradict this theory for many reasons. I still believe that electrons do not jump from lower levels to higher levels when exited and then jump back from higher levels to lower by emitting the energy as radiation. But actually gets repelled due to magnetic force with that of magnetic force exhibited by electrons in same axis. The frequency in which the electrons move or gets repelled in its own axis emits the electro-magnetic light radiation. When I speak about magnetic force, I refer to force by mX-trons. mX-trons which spin around electrons work as the actual objects in magnetic flux which cause attractive/repulsive force If the magnetic force by the external electro-magnetic radiation is too higher than that of force required for the electrons to spin around the nucleus, then the electrons are thrown out of axis as free electron. This also explains why we see different colors in different objects when exposed to light radiation. Basically all atoms are colorless. The radiation from Sun results in Photoelectric effect on atoms. When an external electromagnetic radiation hits a atom, we see that electrons exhibits force by external radiation and gets exited As I believe, electrons spin around nucleus with an measured attractive-repulsive force. If an external electro-magnetic radiation is exposed on atoms, then the magnetic force by these radiation repels only those electrons which should be more than the force required for the electrons to spin around the nucleus and the frequency in which the electrons move or gets repelled in its own axis emits the electro-magnetic light radiation and exhibits colors.










































In my view, the electrons are not removed from the atoms or moving to higher axis, but it is getting repelled in its own axis here and there. The vibrating frequency of these electrons in its same axis exhibits colors in visible spectrum.Different atoms have different force that they help electrons spin around its axis. Hence different atoms exhibits different color when exposed to light radiation. Further, as mentioned above, if the magnetic force by the external electro-magnetic radiation is too higher than that of force required for the electrons to spin around the nucleus, then the electrons are thrown out of axis as free electron. The removal or addition of electrons in atoms will change the chemical equation and results creating/breaking bonds. Take any matter in this universe, they are made by following main elements : oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Chlorine, Sodium, Magnesium, Iron, Cobalt, Copper, Zinc, Iodine, Selenium, Fluorine. Again these elements are composed of three particles with an electric charge: electrons, protons and uncharged neutrons. Some elements such as Hydrogen or ferromagnetic materials with unpaired electrons with the same spin results in combined magnetic flux come from the moments of all of its atoms. The attractive and repulsive force results in spin like what we see in electric motors. The same principle in atoms, the same principle in universe, the same principle in galaxies. After all, all the matter in this universe are made up by same elements. With this article, I am confident that this theory should explain why everything in the universe, from galaxies down to atoms, electrons spin. Further, the electro-magnetic force forms the vital component for every action or movement.

Let us try to decode life and see what energies have created life.
Here is some famous quotes of "Bhagavad-Gita" which deals with the most sacred metaphysical science composed by Veda Vyasa. In Gita, Lord Krishna said: The individual soul (Jiva, energy) in the body of living beings is the integral part of the universal Spirit (energy). The individual soul associates with the six sensory faculties perception and activates them. The inherent power of cognition and desire of Eternal Being (Spirit) is called the nature of Eternal Being. The creative power of Eternal Being (or Spirit) that causes manifestation of the living entity is called Karma (act). Any desire that arise in you (Jiva) that make you act is the due to the attraction from the Eternal Spirit. The action in you is due to the force from the main source of energy.

So, What is Life?
Life can be defined as an energy inside a particular boundary. This energy helps metabolism to take place inside the boundary, metabolism helps to distribute energy and generate information. A genetic component carries information/energy to other energy boundary resulting a bi-product being created. This process repeats until the energy levels are transmitted or distributed to maintain the balance.

The energy level balance is the law of nature.At any case, a intermittent or external energy source is required to excite a particular boundary with energy.

When we speak about external energy, the first thing we remember is Sun's energy. Yes. To some extent it is true. All the energy in animals, plants, oil, gas, and coal originally came from the suns radiation, captured through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things. The conversion of unusable sunlight energy into usable chemical energy, is associated with the actions of the green pigment chlorophyll. Most of the time, the photosynthetic process uses water and releases the oxygen that we absolutely must have to stay alive. The Glucose is used as food as well!
The overall reaction of this process as:
6H2O + 6CO2 + Sun's Energy ----------> C6H12O6+ 6O2











Animals are carbon dioxide producers that derive their energy from carbohydrates and other chemicals produced by plants by the process of photosynthesis.

Living things are composed primarily of water and organic compounds, enzymes are protein catalysts that carry out the chemical reactions of metabolism. All chemical reactions require activation energy to break chemical bonds and begin the reaction.When we speak about animal or plant cells, all cells have nucleus and this is the 'control centre' of the cell. It primarily is composed of again carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) in some proteins (particularly enzymes). The nucleus contains nucleic acids, DNA, and RNA, which in turn contain C, H, O, N, and P.
Human body or take it any animals or plants, they are made by following main elements : oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Chlorine, Sodium, Magnesium, Iron, Cobalt, Copper, Zinc, Iodine, Selenium, Fluorine.So finally it is these elements that act or react to form the life.

So, we need to study what makes them to act or react. Definitely, it is sure that it should be these atoms that absorb or emit energy from external source or create or break chemical bonds which together makes the cells, organs or body to act.
As we discussed above, for a life to exists, at any case, a intermittent or external energy source is required to excite a particular boundary, so let us study more about external source of energy. Let's begin with Sun's energy and the behaviour shown by elements in periodic table.
What are components of Sun's energy and what happens to atoms when they are hit by Solar radiation?Solar radiation is radiant energy emitted by the sun from a nuclear fusion reaction that creates electromagnetic energy (Electromagnetic Wave).

















The radiation from Sun results in Photoelectric effect on atoms. When an external electromagnetic radiation hits a atom, we see that electrons exhibits force by external radiation and gets exited.

If the magnetic force by the electro-magnetic radiation is too higher than that of force required for the electrons to spin around the nucleus, then the electrons are thrown out of axis as free electron.

The changes in electrons in atoms results chemical reactions to take place by creating/breaking bonds.

What normally happens to atoms when they are exited by external light radiation?
It is observed that Light from the sun hitting moon dust causes it to become charged through the photoelectric effect. The charged dust then repels itself and lifts off the surface of the Moon by electrostatic levitation.
So let us look this behavior by various elements present in earth.In general, atoms are most stable when all of their orbital are occupied by two electrons unless disturbed by external energy. Isolated atoms, such as hydrogen(H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O), have some orbitals that are not occupied by two electrons. For example, hydrogen is an atom that has a single proton (its nucleus) and a single electron. The electron of the hydrogen atom is in a 1s orbital. Different types of atoms (e.g., oxygen and hydrogen) have very different affinities for electrons. This differential affinity for electrons is demonstrated with different bonds or formation of Ions, covalent bond etc.
For instance: Sodium metal has tendency to lose electron for Sun's radiation and the ferric iron in the ocean is ultimate electron acceptor. I have taken Sodium, since we all know that sodium is present in great quantities in the earth's oceans as sodium chloride.



















For more details, let us look at Periodic table below:






























Most alkali metals have lowest electro negativeness (they tend to lose electrons). Atoms of high electro negativity (upper right nonmetals) tend to gain electrons.

The alkali metals, found in group 1 of the periodic table, are highly reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature. These metals have only one electron in their outer shell. Therefore, they are ready to lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements. Metalloids have properties of both metals and non-metals. Some of the metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, are semi-conductors which again show there affinity to light radiation. This is proved in semi-conductor technology and when we speak about Noble gases, they have 8 electrons in their outer shell, making them stable. These elements have an oxidation number of 0. This prevents them from forming compounds readily.

NOTE : 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of the six main elements : oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and then other elements that are phosphorus and then Potassium, Sulfur, Chlorine, Sodium, Magnesium, Iron, Cobalt, Copper, Zinc, Iodine, Selenium, Fluorine.

Different types of atoms have very different affinities for electrons and Sun's radiation. If we take a look of elements in living organisms, we see it is these elements present in our body in which some are either electron donors and some are electron acceptors. Each time when the atoms are exited by external source results in partial charges created. Giving the electrons and accepting the electrons, we have partial positive and partial negative charges and these interact with other partial positive and partial negative charges associated with other molecules that result in creation of bonds. These Bonds lead formation of Organic molecules. And again, electrical asymmetries in these molecules would have resulted in further creation of complements or living cells and then again some of molecules in these living cells absorbs the external radiation and will try to stay stable state by transferring the energy to do something useful. Can we now call this balance of charges or electrical asymmetries as metabolism.
Even if we check out any living organism, we see that it is these electro-chemical reactions happening for metabolism, transport of ions across membranes and growth.

But when did life first arise on Earth?
The Earth is thought to be approximately 4.6 billion years old, but life is believed to have occurred approximately 4 billion years ago. There is a idea that long ago complex collections of chemicals formed the first cells. Life began in the oceans from simple chemicals joining together in a primordial soup. Complex chemicals evolved into living cells.
What were the conditions like on Earth when life arose? Organic molecules being formed on the Earth's surface. Lightening and ultraviolet radiation from the Sun acted on the atmosphere to forms small traces of many different gases, including ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and ethane and also, cyanide (HCN) probably formed easily in the upper atmosphere, from solar radiation and then dissolved in raindrops.

Can the life be created now using all the main components for Life?
Consider a very simplest way to create life using all the main components required for life. For example, preparing a soup of all the dissolved organic components and exposing the soup to sun radiation. When we speak about components, water is the most abundant molecule on Earth's surface, composing of about 70% of the Earth's surface. Water also makes up 75 % of the human body.Modern chemistry explains us how water was formed now or during primitive earth.The structural and electrical properties of the water should be discussed in relation to membrane functions, in particular transport of ions across membranes.Water is primarily a liquid under standard conditions, however, all the elements surrounding oxygen in the periodic table, nitrogen, fluorine, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine, all combine with hydrogen to produce gases under standard conditions.

The reason that water forms a liquid is that it is more electronegative than all of these elements (other than fluorine). Oxygen attracts electrons much more strongly than hydrogen, resulting in a net positive charge on the hydrogen atoms, and a net negative charge on the oxygen atom. The presence of a charge on each of these atoms gives each water molecule a net dipole moment. Electrical attraction between water molecules due to this dipole pulls individual molecules closer together, making it more difficult to separate the molecules and therefore raising the boiling point. This attraction is known as hydrogen-bonding.

And again, some elements show ionic bond when dissolved in water. For instance, when sodium and chlorine atoms are mixed together, the sodium atom gives its electron to the chlorine atom. The sodium and chlorine atoms become the sodium and chloride ions (Na and Cl, respectively). The sodium and chloride ions have opposite electrical charges and so the two ions are electro statically attracted to each other. The electrostatic attraction between two ions, each with a full (not partial) electric charge, is called an ionic-bond.
These electrochemical reactions are very much necessary for transport of ions across membranes.Now create a soup with water and amphiphilic molecules. The amphiphilic molecules forms a oily surface. One end interact with water and one end does not interact with water. These molecules automatically self-assemble to form bi-layers.These are the technique used to make up the walls of our cells and several research and available fossils demonstrates the formation of organic soup during primitive earth.So we can assume that there could be some molecules trapped in-between bilayer and we have learnt that different molecules behave differently with Sun radiation. Expose the bilayer with Sun's radiation, some of molecules or elements sensitive to light radiation absorbs the light and becomes excited resulting in formation of bonds and chemical reaction results in action or we can call them as metabolism. This is because, energy level balance has to take place and the molecule can not stay in an excited stable state for long time and the the excitation energy to be transferred to maintain the balance.Let us check this more with modern fuel cells designed.
Even when we speak about cell evolution, it is assumed that first cell types were heterotrophic cells which were incapable of producing their own food and then autotrophs which can produce chemicals to store energy and then chemoautotroph which can store energy found in certain inorganic chemicals. and then prokaryotes, 2 - 1.5 billion years ago and then eukaryotes which had membranes to isolate certain chemical reactions and cellular life then evolved into what we know today.But we still need to learn more to make the excitation energy reproduce.





















Hydrogen bonds are critically important in biology because they help explain the solubility of molecules in water, the structure of macro molecules (such as DNA and protein), and the formation of stable lipid bi-layer membranes.

Even when we speak about DNA in animal or plant cells, Hydrogen bonding is the chemical mechanism that underlies the base-pairing rules. Hydrogen bonds are weak electrostatic attractions between atoms displaying partial positive and partial negative charges. The partial positive charges are produced when hydrogen atoms are associated with another atom through a polar covalent bond. The partial negative charges are associated with an atom (e.g., oxygen) that has a higher affinity for electrons.The oxygen atom has two pairs of electrons in its outermost energy level that are not in bonding orbitals. These four electrons form a negatively charged "cloud" of electron density on the side of the water molecule opposite from the hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atom is much more electro-negative than the hydrogen atom, so, when a bonding orbital forms between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms, the electrons in the bonding orbital are disproportionately distributed toward the oxygen side of the polar covalent bond. This results in a partial negative charge (-) associated with the oxygen atom. The full positive charge of the hydrogen nucleus is poorly covered by the thin electron density and "shows through", resulting in a partial positive charge (+).The weak electrostatic attraction between the partial negative and partial positive charges is a hydrogen bond.In molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair.























































Hence coming back to electronics basics, it this external source(Solar/Cosmic Rays) that excite the atoms resulting in formation of bonds (creating partial positive and negative charges) and resulting in growth.
Appropriate geometrical correspondence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors allows only the "right" pairs to form stably.Within cells, DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes are duplicated before cells divide, in a process called DNA replication. Eukaryotic organisms such as animals, plants, and fungi store their DNA inside the cell nucleus, while in prokaryotes such as bacteria it is found in the cell's cytoplasm. Within the chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed and we all know that DNA contains the genetic information that allows all modern living things to function, grow and reproduce. If we go still deeper, we see that RNA or DNA replication are environmentally forced. In recent research it is seen that solar rays/Cosmic rays and cycles (day and night) could have forced the replication process triggering in growth as shown above. RNA or DNA strands that we currently have in cells are due to a large number of variations that led into forming pair.4-billion-year of evolution has resulted forming from a basic pair to 3000000000 DNA nucleotide pairs that we currently have in human. We still see same less pairs in bacteria (about 400000 DNA nucleotide pairs).


Disclaimer : This is all about life and growth. Most of the data that I have represented are already available in science books that we all have studied during our college or school days. I have gone little more in-depth and have tried to bring few new concepts on Mx-trons for explaining magnetic field and also new concept on how electrons behave when they are exposed to external radiations. Finally, I want to conclude that the forces of Nature do all works and is purely science behind every energy flow or creation. Nothing got created by magic.

Please continue reading my main blog on evolution of these chromosomes and how human civilization got evolved, various belief system and languages/scripts  @ http://arvindbhagwath.blogspot.com

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a




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